[printable]

Gaelic Orthographic Conventions

Copyright © Scottish Qualifications Authority

The original version of this document can be found here.


1. the spelling rule [+/-]

The spelling rule – leathann ri leathann is caol ri caol ‘broad to broad and slender to slender’ – means that when one or more consonants come between two vowels, the vowels on either side of the consonant(s) should be of the same class.


a. broad to broad [+/-]

If the vowel preceding the consonant(s) is broad – a, o or u – the vowel following should also be broad –

  • bodach, ceòlmhor, cumadh


b. slender to slender [+/-]

B. Where the vowel before the consonant(s) is slender – i or e – then the vowel after the consonant(s) should be slender –

  • caileag, coinnich, oidhche


exceptions [+/-]

Exceptions to this rule occur –

  • with some past participles passive –
    • glacte, leagte, togte
  • with certain compounds –
    • banrigh, choreigin, mocheirigh, rudeigin
  • and with some borrowed words –
    • mosgìoto, soircas, telefòn


2. consonant quality [+/-]


a. palatals [+/-]

A. Consonants or consonant groups with palatal quality should be indicated by placing slender vowels (e, i) adjacent to them:

  • at the beginning of a word – ceann, geall, greann, seall, steall
  • at the end of a word – cruinn, cuirm, Goill, isg, saill
  • in the middle of a word – clisgeadh, cruinne, sailleadh, tuilleadh


b. velars [+/-]

B. Consonants or consonant groups with velar quality should be indicated by placing broad vowels (a, o, u) adjacent to them –

  • at the beginning of a word – gràn, sprùilleach, stòr
  • at the end of a word – ceann, cosg, geal, sealg
  • in the middle of a word – ceannaich, balach, cosgais, lochdan


c. seo, siud, no [+/-]

The forms seo and siud, showing palatal quality, should be used. In the case of neo or no, the latter is the preferred form, although the former is appropriate in the phrase air neo.


d. taigh [+/-]

To refect the sound quality of the consonant, taigh should be used instead of tigh.


3. consonant groups [+/-]


a. -sg-, -sp-, -st- [+/-]

The letters sg should be used in all positions in place of sc

  • basgaid, cosg, pasgan, Sgalpaigh, sgian

The letters sp should be used in all positions in place of sb

  • cuspair, cuspann, speal, uspag

However, because of their frequency and familiarity, the spelling of the words deasbad, easbaig, susbaint and taisbeanadh should be left unchanged.

The letters st should be used in all positions in place of sd

  • aosta, a-rithist, èist, furasta, gasta, sta, staidhre, tuarastal, tubaist

An exception would arise in a compound place name where the final element is -dal or -dail

  • Gramasdal, Lacasdal, Loch Baghasdail

Exceptions may also be found in the case of established forms of personal names and nomenclature on signage –

  • Alasdair, Colaisde, Fionnlasdan, Taigh-òsda, Ùisdean

Likewise, Crìosd(a), Crìosdaidh &c


b. co- [+/-]

The prefix formerly written as comh- should be written as co- where it does not take stress –

  • co-chomann, co-chòrdadh, co-labhairt, co-ogha

Where it bears stress but does not have nasalisation, words should be written as in the examples below –

  • coileanta, coitheanal, coluadar

Where it bears stress and does have nasalisation, the form comh-/còmh- without a hyphen should be used –

  • comhaois ‘person of similar age’, còmhdhail ‘congress, transport’, còmhradh ‘speech’


c. cudrom, meòraich [+/-]

Consonant groups should be simplifed in –

  • cudrom (cuideam also acceptable), cudromach, meòraich and meòrachan


4. vowel representations [+/-]

The following are recommended forms –


a. -eu- [+/-]

eu rather than ia as in the words beul, feur, meud, sgeul


b. -ìo- [+/-]

ìo rather than ia as in the words dìon, fìon, fìor, mìos


c. homophones [+/-]

Homophones (words with the same sound but a different meaning) should be differentiated where possible. For example, ceud should be retained for ‘a hundred’ and the word for ‘first’ should be written ciad. Similarly, ‘month’ would be mìos and the word for ‘basin’ should be written mias. The words for ‘grass’, ‘squint’ and ‘true’ should be spelt feur, fiar and fìor respectively. The words for ‘anything’, ‘charm/spell’ and ‘storm’ should be spelt sìon, seun and sian respectively.


d. -adh-, -ao- [+/-]

The sound previously represented by the vowel combination ao should be written as adh in words such as –

  • adhbhar, adhbrann, adhradh

The combination ao is retained to represent the different sound in, for example –

  • daor, faobhar, gaoth, saor


e. unstressed vowels [+/-]

The use of a (rather than u) to render the sound in the unstressed second syllable in words like balach, bodach and tioram should be extended to most words, eg.

  • àlainn, altram, Bìoball, comann, doras, fallas, foghlam, madainn, solas, turas

An exception to this is agus, in which u should not change to a, because of frequency and familiarity.

Similarly, ea should be used rather than io in words like –

  • boireann, doilgheas, Èireannach, fireannach, gailleann, timcheall

However, the words aotrom and cothrom should refect the element trom in their spelling.


f. -am, -om [+/-]

In the case of spelling of diphthongs with m in words such as: cam, lampa, lom, trom the spelling without the accent should be retained except in: àm ‘time’ which should have an accent to differentiate it from other words spelt am.


g. -eil, -ail [+/-]

The conventional spelling should be used in the representation of the vowel quality of adjectival endings in words such as those below, although in many areas some of these spelt with a slender vowel contain back vowels in speech –

  • ainmeil, bodachail, cuideachail, duineil, fearail, sgileil, sgoinneil


h. accents [+/-]

The grave accent only should be used to indicate length –

  • an-dè, bò, cù, làmh, lèine, mòr, tìr

However, the accent should be written on à/às ‘out of’ and on às whenever the vowel is open (às bith, às dèidh, às mo chadal) to distinguish it from as when the vowel is not open (as fheàrr, as t-earrach, as t-samhradh &c).

The accent should also be used to indicate length on capital letters –

  • Àird Àsaig, Ìle, Ìomhar, An t-Òban, Ùig, Ùna


i. -ann, -ill, -inn, -onn, -unn [+/-]

The conventional spelling without an accent should be retained on the long vowel sound before ll and nn in words such as –

  • cinnteach, fillte, inntinn, till
  • bonn, cunntas, sanntach

This principle should also be applied to words formerly spelt with the accent, eg.

  • dilleachdan, dinnear, trilleachan


5. word stress and emphasis [+/-]


a. initial stress [+/-]

Where stress is on the first syllable of words, including proper compounds, these should be spelt as one word –

  • atharrais, banrigh, barrall, cuingealachadh, dìochuimhnich, eatarrasan, imeachd, smaoineachadh, leabharlann

Words with prefixes conform to the same pattern –

  • anabarrach, anacothrom, aocoltach, aodomhainn, eucoir


b. non-initial stress [+/-]

Words in which stress does not fall on the first syllable should generally be hyphenated, with the hyphen coming before the part of the word bearing the stress –

  • ban-diùc, cas-chrom

Words with prefixes conform to the same pattern –

  • ana-miann, ath-bheothachadh

However, hyphens should not be used in borrowed or adapted words that have non-initial stress –

  • buntàta, telebhisean, tombaca

Pronouns with emphasising particles (-ne, -sa, -se, -san) should generally be written as one word –

  • againne, astasan, dhaibhsan, dhutsa, leathase, troimhesan

But leis-san and ris-san should be hyphenated to avoid the juxtaposition of -ss-.


c. emphatic particles [+/-]

Where the emphasising particle follows a noun or an adjective, the word should be hyphenated –

  • a brògan-se, ar càirdean-ne, mo leabhar-sa, mo sheacaid ùr-sa

However, adjectival forms of seo, sin and siud should be written as separate words –

  • an rud seo/an rud sa, an rud sin, an rud ud


d. adverbs [+/-]

Adverbial expressions of time and place which constitute units should be hyphenated –

  • a-màireach, a-nis, a-nochd, a-raoir, a-rithist, am-bliadhna, an-ceartuair, an-dè, an-diugh, an-dràsta, an-earar, an-uiridh
  • a-bhàn, a-bhos, an-àird, a-nall, a-nìos, a-nuas, a-null
  • a-chaoidh, a-cheana, am-feast, a-mhàin, a-riamh
  • a-mach, a-muigh, a-staigh, a-steach


e. adverbs with ath- [+/-]

In the adverbial expressions meaning ‘next year’, ‘tomorrow night’ and ‘next week’, hyphens should be used –

  • an-ath-bhliadhn’ / an-ath-bhliadhna, an-ath-oidhch’, an-ath-sheachdain

However, they should be written as separate words when they are nouns and the sense is ‘the following’ or ‘the next’, eg.

  • Bha an ath bhliadhna na b’ fheàrr. ‘The following/the next year was better.’
  • Bhiodh an ath oidhche glè eadar-dhealaichte. ‘The following/the next night would be very different.’
  • Thòisich an ath sheachdain le gaoth is uisge. ‘The following/the next week began with wind and rain.’


f. prepositional compounds [+/-]

Compound prepositions with stress on non-initial elements should be written as two words –

  • a chum, am broinn, à measg, am measg, a rèir, a thaobh, os cionn, ri taobh


g. airson, carson, ciamar [+/-]

airson, carson and ciamar should be written as one word, but son/shon in expressions such as air a son fhèin and air mo shon fhèin should be written as separate words. However, when airson is contracted, the spelling should be ’son.


h. -eigin [+/-]

Words ending in the element -eigin should generally be written as one word, even where the spelling rule is broken –

  • air choreigin, cuideigin, feareigin, latheigin, neacheigin, rudeigin, uaireigin

The word tè-eigin should, however, be hyphenated to avoid the juxtaposition of -ee-.


6. apostrophes and spacing [+/-]


a. use of apostrophes [+/-]

Apostrophes are used for the following –

  • forms of the article before a noun, eg. a’ ghealach
  • verbal nouns beginning with a consonant, eg. a’ falbh
  • shortened version of the verb is, eg. ’s ann, ’s dòcha, ’s e, ’s math
  • shortened version of bu, eg. b’ ann, b’ e, b’ fheàrr
  • shortened version of is/agus, eg. cho luath ’s a tha e, math ’s gu bheil e
  • shortened version of possessive pronouns, eg. d’ fhàinne, m’ amhach
  • after the past tense marker dh’, eg. dh’fhalbh, dh’ith
  • when the preposition becomes a dh’ before vowels, eg. a dh’iarraidh, a dh’Uibhist


b. no apostrophe [+/-]

The apostrophe should not be used in the following:

  • gum faigh, gun creideadh, gur ann
  • làrna-mhàireach, nuair


c. possessive phrases [+/-]

The apostrophe should not be used in possessive phrases, eg.

  • nam thaigh; na mo thaigh
  • nad thaigh; na do thaigh
  • na thaigh
  • na taigh, na h-àite
  • nar taigh; na ar taigh
  • nur taigh; na ur taigh
  • nan taighean, nam brògan


d. ga* [+/-]

The apostrophe should not be used with forms such as ga, eg.

  • gam thuigsinn; ga mo thuigsinn
  • gad chreidsinn; ga do chreidsinn
  • ga chluinntinn
  • ga h-aithneachadh
  • gar togail; ga ar togail
  • gur leantainn; ga ur leantainn
  • gan coinneachadh gam faicinn


e. spacing [+/-]

It should be noted that the forms a’, b’, d’ and m’ are always followed by a space. There should not, however, be a space after dh’.

Where an or am are shortened to ’n and ’m and are preceded by a noun or a pronoun, they should be written as separate words, with a space left, eg.

  • a bheil thu ’m beachd?
  • bha an duine ’n dùil
  • tha mi ’n dòchas

A space should always follow ’s, and it should never be joined to the following word, eg.

  • ’s ann à Nis a tha mi
  • ’s e sin as fheàrr
  • ’s mise a th’ ann
  • ’s dòcha gun tig iad
  • mi fhìn ’s tu fhèin
  • cho luath ’s a chì mi e


7. sound adaptation and loan words [+/-]

Words or sounds integrated into Gaelic should be written as follows –

Initial CH may be represented by se- or te-

  • seic ‘cheque’, seòclaid ‘chocolate’, seans(a) / teans(a) ‘chance’

Initial J may be represented by i- or s- or d-

  • Iapan ‘Japan’, Iupatar ‘Jupiter’
  • seit-phlèan ‘jet-plane’
  • dinichean ‘jeans’

Initial K may be represented by c-

  • cilegram / cg ‘kilogram / kg’, cilemeatair / km ‘kilometre / km’ (km is used to avoid confusion with cm)

Initial Q may be represented by cu-

  • cuaraidh ‘quarry’, cuota ‘quota’

Initial V may be represented by bh-

  • bhana ‘van’, Bhictòria ‘Victoria’

Initial W may be represented by u(a)- or u(e)-

  • uàlras ‘walrus’, uèir ‘wire’

Initial WH may be represented by cu- or chu-

  • chuip ‘whipped’, cuibheall ‘wheel’, cuip ‘whip’

Initial X may be represented by s-

  • saidhleafòn ‘xylophone’

X in the middle of a word may be represented by -gs-

  • bogsa ‘box’, tagsaidh ‘taxi’

Initial Y may be represented by gh- or i-

  • gheat ‘yacht’, iogart ‘yoghurt’, Iorc ‘York’

Initial Z may be represented by s-

  • sinc ‘sink / zinc’, / sutha ‘zoo’

Diphthongs in adapted words should be represented by –dh, not –gh

  • baidhsagal ‘bicycle’, loidhne (‘line’), soidhne ‘sign’, stoidhle ‘style’

Final –EE and –Y should be represented by –(a)idh

  • cofaidh ‘coffee’, comadaidh ‘comedy’, comataidh ‘committee’, poileasaidh ‘policy’, silidh ‘jelly / jam’, tofaidh ‘toffee’


8. verbs [+/-]


a. bi [+/-]

The following forms should be used for the verb ‘to be’. Commas are used where there are alternative forms determined by stress. An oblique is used to indicate dialectal alternatives –

  • past tense –
    • an robh? ‘was/were?’
    • gun robh ‘that ... was/were’
    • nach robh ‘that ... was/were not’
  • past participle – bhite / bhithist(e) ‘used to be’
  • conditional –
    • bhiodh, bhitheadh ‘would be’
    • cha bhiodh, cha bhitheadh ‘would not be’
  • future tense –
    • bidh, bithidh ‘will be’
    • cha bhi ‘will not be’
    • am bi? ‘will ... be?’
    • ... gum bi ‘that ... will be’
    • ... nach bi ‘that ... will not be’
    • a bhith ‘to be’

The monosyllabic forms bidh, bhiodh, cha bhiodh should be the norm, with the forms bithidh, bhitheadh and cha bhitheadh being used only to show emphasis.


b. irregular verbs [+/-]

The following forms should be used for irregular verbs. Commas are used where there are alternative forms determined by stress.

abair

  • verbal noun – ag ràdh / a’ ràdh
  • past positive – thuirt, thubhairt
  • past negative – cha tuirt, cha tubhairt

beir (air)

  • verbal noun – a’ breith
  • past positive – rug
  • past negative – cha do rug

cluinn

  • verbal noun – a’ cluinntinn
  • past positive – chuala
  • past negative – cha chuala

dèan

  • verbal noun – a’ dèanamh
  • past positive – rinn
  • past negative – cha do rinn

faic

  • verbal noun – a’ faicinn
  • past positive – chunnaic / chunna
  • past negative – chan fhaca

faigh

  • verbal noun – a’ faighinn
  • past positive – fhuair
  • past negative – cha d’ fhuair

rach

  • verbal noun – a’ dol
  • past positive – chaidh
  • past negative – cha deach / cha deachaidh

ruig

  • verbal noun – a’ ruighinn / a’ ruigsinn
  • past positive – ràinig
  • past negative – cha do ràinig / cha d’ ràinig

thig

  • verbal noun – a’ tighinn
  • past positive – thàinig
  • past negative – cha tàinig

thoir

  • verbal noun – a’ toirt
  • past positive – thug
  • past negative – cha tug


c. cuir [+/-]

Forms of the verb cuir ‘put’ should be written as follows –

  • root – cuir
  • verbal noun – a’ cur
  • past positive – chuir
  • past negative – cha do chuir
  • infinitive – a chur


9. prepositional phrases [+/-]


a. preposition + article [+/-]

Prepositional phrases may consist of preposition + article + noun, eg. bho + an + baile, which yields bhon bhaile ‘from the town’. The form bhon a’ bhaile is also acceptable. The same principle is shown below with other prepositions –

  • fo + anfon taigh / fon an taigh
  • mu + anmun bhòrd / mun a’ bhòrd
  • ro + anron Nollaig / ron an Nollaig
  • tro + antron bhaile / tron a’ bhaile

In the case of leis and ris, a different pattern is found, as they do not combine with the singular article to form a new word and they can be followed by two different forms of the article –

  • leis + anleis an duine, leis a’ bhaile
  • ris + anris an duine, ris a’ bhaile

A similar pattern is found with anns, but additional contractions are also found –

  • anns + ananns an duine, anns a’ bhailesan duine, sa bhaile

The prepositions do and de are replaced in many areas with dha and dhe / dha, resulting in a greater variety of forms than in the case of those above –

  • do + andon bhaile / don a’ bhaile
  • dha + andhan bhaile / dhan a’ bhaile
  • de + anden bhaile / den a’ bhaile
  • dhe + andhen bhaile / dhen a’ bhaile

In the case of do + an, dan bhaile may also be found.

Before plurals and gach, both le and ri may be found as well as leis and ris

  • le/leis na balaich
  • ri/ris gach tè

Both forms are acceptable.


b. preposition + possessive [+/-]

Other prepositional phrases may consist of preposition + possessive + noun, eg do + mo + taigh, which yields dom thaigh ‘to my house’. The form dham thaigh is also acceptable. The following combined forms can be used, although the separate versions are also acceptable –

  • do
    • modom/dham
    • dodod/dhad
    • a masc.da/dha (a) thaigh
    • a fem.da/dha (a) taigh
    • ardor/dar/dhar
    • urdur/dhur
    • amdom/dam/dham
    • andon/dan/dhan
  • bho
    • mobhom/om
    • dobhod/od
    • a masc.bho/o (a) thaigh
    • a fem.bho/o (a) taigh
    • arbhor/or
    • urbhur
    • ambhom/om
    • anbhon/on


c. other combined forms [+/-]

Other combined forms follow this pattern –

  • de
    • mod(h)em
    • dod(h)ed
    • ad(h)e (a)
    • ard(h)er
    • urd(h)ur
    • amd(h)em/d(h)en
  • fo
    • mofom
    • dofod
    • afo (a)
    • arfor
    • urfur
    • amfom/fon
  • gu
    • mogum
    • dogud
    • agu (a)
    • argar
    • urgur
    • amgum/gun
  • le
    • molem
    • doled
    • ale (a)
    • arler
    • urlur
    • amlem/len
  • ri
    • morim
    • dorid
    • ari (a)
    • arrir
    • urrur
    • amrim/rin
  • ro
    • morom
    • dorod
    • aro (a)
    • arror
    • urrur
    • amrom/ron
  • tro
    • motrom
    • dotrod
    • atro (a)
    • artror
    • urtrur
    • amtrom/tron


d. full forms [+/-]

However, it is also acceptable to use the full forms:

  • bho do mhàthair
  • gu do sheanair
  • le bhur cead
  • ro ur bracaist

In the first and second plurals, the full forms would be:

  • bho ar and bho ur
  • de/dhe ar and de/dhe ur
  • do/dha ar and do/dha ur
  • fo ar and fo ur
  • gu ar and gu ur
  • le ar and le ur
  • ri ar and ri ur
  • ro ar and ro ur
  • tro ar and tro ur


e. do, dha [+/-]

In many areas dha has replaced do as the is retained when there is no article, eg.

  • dhan taigh, dhan a’ bhùth, taing dhan Fhreastal, but
  • do thaigh mòr, do bhùth an arain, taing do Dhia

However, in some areas dha is used even when there is no article, especially with proper names. In these cases, the word following should never be lenited, eg.

  • dha seirbheis an Rìgh, dha Màiri, dha Seumas


10. hyphenation [+/-]


a. nouns [+/-]

It is acknowledged that the spelling of words made up of more than one noun joined together presents diffculties, and the following guidelines are intended to assist. Compounds are generally hyphenated if they are regarded as constituting a unit — for example, if any accompanying adjective would normally come before, or after, the paired words rather than between them, eg.

  • an t-eadar-lìon, brath-naidheachd, cùis-lagha, in-sheirbheis, làrach-lìn, leabhar-latha, post-dealain, ro-ràdh

The words àite, ball, bàta, ceann, clàr, còir, cùirt, culaidh, inneal, ionad, obair, rùm, seòmar, taigh and uidheam should be followed by a hyphen when preceding another noun which is in the genitive case, eg.

  • àite-fuirich, ball-maise, bàta-siùil, ceann-suidhe, clàr-gnothaich, còir-bhreith, cùirt-lagha, culaidh-thruais, inneal-nigheadaireachd, ionad-obrach, obair-làimhe, rùm-cadail, seòmar-ionnlaid, taigh-bìdh, uidheam-spòrs

The following words denoting persons or groups — bean, buidheann, fear, luchd, neach, sgioba, — should be hyphenated when followed by a common noun, eg.

  • bean-taighe, buidheann-obrach, fear-siubhail, luchd-eòlais, neach-gairm(e), sgioba-glanaidh, tè-labhairt

Similarly with the prefix ban(a) when the stress is on the second syllable, eg.

  • bana-phrionnsa, ban-Eadailteach, ban-s(h)einneadair

When the stress is on the first syllable, there should be no hyphen, eg.

  • banabaidh, banacharaid, banacheard, banaltram

Being a prefix, unlike bean, ban is never followed by the genitive case. The spelling baintighearna ‘noblewoman/lady’ should also be noted.

A similar pattern of hyphenation occurs when one noun is used (like an adjective) to prefix another noun not in the genitive case, with lenition occurring where possible, eg.

  • bròn-chluich, bun-sgoil, ceann-latha, sluagh-ghairm, speur-bhean

It should also be noted that when the second noun (whether feminine or masculine) is not lenited in the nominative, it may still be lenited in an oblique case following a preposition and the article, eg.

  • anns an eachdraidh-bheatha, san taigh-sheinnse

Words that should not be followed by a hyphen include aithisg, comhairle, greis, iomairt, oifigeach, oifigear, òrdugh, plana, roinn, eg.

  • aithisg comhairleachaidh, comhairle baile, iomairt coimhearsnachd, oifigeach/oifigear leasachaidh, òrdugh cùirte, plana gnìomh, roinn dealbhachaidh

There should be no hyphen when nouns are separated by the article or when the second or following noun is a proper noun, eg.

  • Ball Pàrlamaid, bàta Mhalaig, bean Thormoid, Cùirt an t-Seisein, fear an taighe, obair na h-ola, rùm na cloinne, sgioba rugbaidh na h-Alba, taigh Dhòmhnaill

In the case of titles or designations which begin with a capital letter, where the noun following the hyphen is itself normally written with a capital letter because it is a proper noun or a title, the capital should be retained after the hyphen, eg.

  • (an t-)Ath-Leasachadh, Iar-Chathraiche, Leas-Stiùiriche, (na) Meadhan-Aoisean

Otherwise, the noun following the hyphen should be in lower-case, eg.

  • Ceann-cinnidh, Ceann-feadhna, Ceann-suidhe, (an) Co-fhlaitheas

It is not possible to give a definitive ruling on whether a noun following a feminine noun (whether or not there is hyphenation) should be lenited, as there are many examples of when such a noun is lenited and many examples of when it is not, eg. bean-ghlùine and deise chlò but eachdraidh-beatha.


b. adjectives [+/-]

Where an adjective is prefixed to a noun, a hyphen should be used, eg.

  • Àrd-Easbaig, ath-innse, beag-seagh, cruaidh-chàs, dubh-fhacal, Iar-Cheann-suidhe, liath-reothadh, mòr-roinn, trom-laighe

Exceptions are adjectives that always precede the noun: droch, fìor, ioma/iomadh, prìomh, seann, eg.

  • droch shùil, fìor dhuine, iomadh oidhche, (am) Prìomh Mhinistear, seann sgeulachd

An adjective preceding another adjective should always be hyphenated –

  • fad-fhulangach, ioma-dhathach, iomadh-fhillte, làn-eòlach, uile-chumhachdach

Some exceptions occur when stress falls on the first syllable –

  • lagchuiseach, mòrchuiseach

Use of capitals and lower-case with adjectives follows the pattern with nouns, eg.

  • leth-Cheilteach, Gall-Ghàidhealach


c. adverbs [+/-]

Guidance on adverbial phrases is given in Section 5.D.

It should be noted that an seo, an sin and an siud should be spelt without a hyphen.


d. use of fèin and fhèin [+/-]

The prefix fèin is always followed by a hyphen, eg.

  • fèin-eòlas, fèin-mheas, fèin-mhothachail

However, fhèin (and the alternative first person form fhìn) should always follow the word it qualifies and never be hyphenated, eg.

  • an duine fhèin, an duine seo fhèin, an taigh againn fhìn, iad fhèin, mi fhìn, Seumas fhèin

The forms agaib’ fhèin, sib’ fhèin etc may be used to reflect the elided version of agaibh fhèin, sibh fhèin &c in speech.


11. other orthographic issues [+/-]


a. numbers [+/-]

There are two counting systems in use in Gaelic — one based on twenties, the other (more recently introduced in education) on tens. Examples of the two systems are given below, with new forms in [...] –

  • 11 – aon-deug
  • 19 – naoi-deug
  • 27 – seachd air fhichead [fichead ’s a seachd]
  • 29 – naoi air fhichead [fichead ’s a naoi]
  • 30 – deich air fhichead [trithead]
  • 32 – dhà-dheug air fhichead [trithead ’s a dhà]
  • 40 – dà fhichead [ceathrad]
  • 46 – dà fhichead ’s a sia [ceathrad ’s a sia]
  • 50 – leth-cheud [caogad]
  • 60 – trì fichead [seasgad]
  • 70 – trì fichead ’s a deich [seachdad]
  • 80 – ceithir fichead [ochdad]
  • 90 – ceithir fichead ’s a deich [naochad]
  • 135 – sia fichead ’s a còig-deug / ceud ’s còig-deug air fhichead [ceud, trithead ’s a còig]
  • 50,000 – leth-cheud mìle [caogad mìle]
  • 1,000,000 – millean
  • 1,000,000,000 – billean

Numbers are combined with nouns thus –

  • seachd bliadhna deug
  • sia neach air fhichead / fichead neach ’s a sia / fichead ’s a sia neach
  • còig sgillinn deug air fhichead / trithead sgillinn ’s a còig / trithead ’s a còig sgillinn

Numbers should be sequenced thus –

  • a’ chiad (1d)
  • an dàrna / an dara (2na / 2ra)
  • an treas / an treasamh / an trìtheamh (3mh)
  • an ceathramh (4mh)
  • an còigeamh (5mh)
  • an siathamh (6mh)
  • an seachdamh (7mh)
  • an t-ochdamh (8mh)
  • an naoidheamh (9mh)
  • an deicheamh (10mh)

Whether the numbers 6, 7, 8 and 11, are preceded by t- depends on the gender of the word, eg. an seachdamh bogsa (masculine), but an t-seachdamh bròg (feminine).


b. months of the year [+/-]

  • Am Faoilleach (Faoi)
  • An Gearran (Gear)
  • Am Màrt (Màrt)
  • An Giblean (Gibl)
  • An Cèitean (Cèit)
  • An t-Ògmhios (Ògmh)
  • An t-Iuchar (Iuch)
  • An Lùnastal (Lùn)
  • An t-Sultain (Sult)
  • An Dàmhair (Dàmh)
  • An t-Samhain (Samh)
  • An Dùbhlachd (Dùbh)


c. dates [+/-]

Dates may be written in full or using numbers, thus –

  • An seachdamh latha deug dhen Fhaoilleach
  • An ceathramh latha fichead/air fhichead dhen Ghearran
  • An 23mh den Mhàrt
  • 23mh (An) Giblean
  • 26 Cèitean


d. days [+/-]

The names of the days of the week should be written as follows – Full form

  • Diluain (Dil)
  • Dimàirt (Dim)
  • Diciadain (Dic)
  • Diardaoin (Diar)
  • Dihaoine (Dih)
  • Disathairne (Dis)
  • Didòmhnaich (Did)
  • Latha/Là na Sàbaid (LnS)

Periods of the day are indicated as follows:

  • madainn Diluain
  • feasgar Dimàirt
  • feasgar na Sàbaid

The names of the nights of the week should be written –

  • Oidhche Luain
  • Oidhche Mhàirt
  • Oidhche Chiadain
  • Oidhche Ardaoin / Oidhche Dhiardaoin
  • Oidhche Haoine
  • Oidhche Shathairne
  • Oidhche Dhòmhnaich / Oidhche na Sàbaid

Forms such as Oidhche Diluain are also acceptable.


e. surnames [+/-]

Surnames including Mac and Nic should be written as one word, but with a capital letter on the second and any succeeding elements –

  • MacAilein, MacCoinnich/MacChoinnich, MacDhòmhnaill, MacIlleMhaoil, NicIlleDhuinn, NicLeòid, NicThòmais

Exceptions are surnames which include the definite article –

  • Mac a’ Ghobhainn, Mac an Aba, Nic a’ Phearsain


f. place names [+/-]

The spelling of place names consisting of two or more elements should refect the distinctive elements –

  • Ceann Loch Chille Chiarain, Dùn Èideann, Inbhir Nis, Obar Dheathain

Where an element has become obscure, a hyphen should be inserted –

  • Earra-Ghàidheal

The final element in names derived from Norse -ey ‘island’ should be spelt -aigh or -eigh

  • Barraigh, Beàrnaraigh, Èirisgeigh, Pabaigh, Sgalpaigh, Tarasaigh


g. personal titles [+/-]


women [+/-]

It is recommended that ‘Miss’, ‘Ms’ and ‘Mrs’ be rendered as a’ Bh-uas (a contraction of a’ Bhean-uasal). This would yield –

  • a’ Bh-uas (Màiri) Chaimbeul, a’ Bh-uas (Sìne) Mhoireach, a’ Bh-uas (Anna) NicDhòmhnaill

The article would not be written with a capital letter except in a postal address, and after a preposition the name would appear as follows:

  • aig a’ Bh-uas (Màiri) Chaimbeul, aig a’ Bh-uas (Sìne) Mhoireach, aig a’ Bh-uas (Anna) NicDhòmhnaill
  • dhan Bh-uas Chaimbeul, dhan Bh-uas Mhoireach, dhan Bh-uas NicDhòmhnaill

A dative might be marked both in the title and in the name, eg. aig a’ Mhnaoi-uasail Chaimbeil/Mhoirich/NicDhòmhnaill, but this would probably be unnecessarily formal.

However, a genitive should be marked, which would be na M-uas (a contraction of na Mnà-uasail/uaisle):

  • nighean na M-uas C(h)aimbeil, nighean na M-uas M(h)oirich, nighean na M-uas NicDhòmhnaill

The unlenited form is strictly correct, but in practice lenited forms such as nighean na M-uas Chaimbeil and nighean na M-uas Mhoirich are more likely to be found.

The form when addressing someone would be:

  • a Bh-uas Chaimbeul, a Bh-uas Mhoireach, a Bh-uas NicDhòmhnaill

Where it is desired to make clear that a woman is married, the form a’ Bh-ph (a contraction of a’ Bhean-phòsta) is used in the same way as a’ Bh-uas above. The genitive would be na M-p (a contraction of na Mnà-pòsta).

  • a’ Bh-ph Chaimbeul, a’ Bh-ph Mhoireach, a’ Bh-ph NicDhòmhnaill
  • aig a’ Bh-ph Chaimbeul, aig a’ Bh-ph Mhoireach, aig a’ Bh-ph NicDhòmhnaill
  • dhan Bh-ph Chaimbeul, dhan Bh-ph Mhoireach, dhan Bh-ph NicDhòmhnaill
  • nighean na M-p C(h)aimbeil, nighean na M-p M(h)oirich, nighean na M-p NicDhòmhnaill

The formulation below may also be used:

  • Màiri, Bean Chaimbeil ‘Mrs Mary Campbell’
  • Sìne, Bean Mhoirich ‘Mrs Jean Murray’
  • Anna, Bean MhicDhòmhnaill ‘Mrs Anne MacDonald’


men [+/-]

It is recommended that ‘Mr’ be rendered as Mgr (a contraction of Maighstir). The genitive would be Mhgr (a contraction of Mhaighstir). This would yield the following –

  • Mgr Caimbeul, Mgr MacDhòmhnaill, Mgr Moireach
  • aig Mgr Caimbeul, aig Mgr MacDhòmhnaill, aig Mgr Moireach
  • do Mhgr Caimbeul, do Mhgr MacDhòmhnaill, do Mhgr Moireach
  • mac Mhgr Chaimbeil, mac Mhgr MhicDhòmhnaill, mac Mhgr Mhoirich

The form used when addressing someone would be –

  • a Mhgr Chaimbeil, a Mhgr Mhoirich, a Mhgr MhicDhòmhnaill


another form of address [+/-]

Another format is exemplifed in Màiri Chaimbeul, Uas (a contraction of Uasal, spelt with an upper-case U) –

  • Sìne Mhoireach, Uas, Anna NicDhòmhnaill, Uas, Seumas Caimbeul, Uas, Alasdair Moireach, Uas, Cailean MacDhòmhnaill, Uas

When any of the names are infected in the normal way, the Uas is unaffected.


h. acronyms [+/-]

Gaelic acronyms, including some which are translations, should be written as follows –

  • BP (Ball Pàrlamaid)
  • BPA (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba)
  • BPE (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Eòrpa)
  • CnaG (Comunn na Gàidhlig)
  • CNES (Comhairle nan Eilean Siar)
  • SMO (Sabhal Mòr Òstaig)

However, non-Gaelic acronyms are often left in their original form even though the full title may be used in Gaelic, eg.

  • BBC, NATO, SNH, SQA, UN, VAT

Acronyms are subject to normal infection patterns, eg.

  • aig a’ BhBC, leis a’ BhPA, oifis ChnaG


i. abbreviations [+/-]

When abbreviations appear in Gaelic form, they are written as follows –

  • àir. ‘no.’, An t-Oll ‘Prof’, An t-Urr ‘Rev’, cg ‘kg’, An Dr ‘Doctor: medical and academic’, km ‘km’, me ‘eg’, Mgr ‘Fr’, msaa ‘etc’, td ‘page’, tdd ‘pp’


12. word list [+/-]

The following word list gives examples of how words should be spelt in accordance with principles and recommendations set out in the document. The list cannot take full account of all the variants which occur in speech. People pronounce certain words in different ways and this diversity is acknowledged, but it is not practicable to include all dialectal forms in this list.

Key –

  • adj = adjective
  • gen = genitive
  • n = noun
  • pl = plural
  • sg = singular
  • v = verb
  • vn = verbal noun

Brackets – a letter or letters in brackets may be omitted

Comma – an alternative depending on context, eg. emphasis

Oblique (/) – an alternative form or forms; where the alternatives appear twice in reverse order, they are equally acceptable. Where the alternatives appear once, the frst form is the recommended one.


a [+/-]

à ‘from, out of’, abair, a-bhàn, a bharrachd ‘in addition; either’, a bheil?, ... a bheil ... (dependent form), a bhith ‘to be’ (not *a bhi), a’ bhòn-dè, a’ bhòn-raoir, a’ bhòn-uiridh, a-bhos, acair(e), acfhainn, a-chaoidh, a-cheana, a’ chiad, a-chianaibh, a chionn ’s / a chionn, a chum, a chur ‘to put’ (not *a chuir), a’ cluich(e), a’ cluinntinn, a’ cur ‘putting’, a’ dannsa(dh), a’ dèanamh, a dh’aindeoin, a dh’aon(a) ghnotha(i)ch, adhar ‘sky’, adharc, adhart, adhbhar, adhbrann, a dh’iarraidh, a dh’ionnsaigh, adhlacadh, adhradh, a dh’Uibhist, agam (a’m for short), agh ‘heifer’, àgh ‘joy, bliss’, A’ Ghearmailt, a-ghnàth, a’ ghriùrach / a’ ghriùlach, ag ràdh / a’ ràdh, agus, a h-uile (h-)oidhche, àibheiseach, aifreann, aig a’ BhBC, aigne, ailbhean, àilgheasach, aillse, aindeonach, ain-diadhaidh, aineolach, ainmeil, ainmig, ainneamh, air a shon fhèin, air a son fhèin, air choreigin, Àird Àsaig, àird ‘headland; point of compass’, àird(e) ‘height’, àireamh (àir. for short) ‘number’, airgead, airidh ‘worthy’, àirigh ‘sheiling’, àirleas / eàrlas, air-loidhne, air muin, àirneis, air neo, air seachran, airson (’son for short), airtneal, airtnealach, aiseag n, aiseal ‘axle’, aisig v, aiste, àite-còmhnaidh, àite-falaich, àite-fuirich, àiteigin, aithghearr, aithisg, àlainn, Alba, altram, àm, a-mach, a-màireach, amar-snà(i)mh, am badeigin, am bi?, ... am bi ... (dependent form), am-bliadhna ‘this year’, am broinn, à measg ‘from among’, am-feast ‘ever’, a-mhàin, àmhainn, amharas, àmhghar, am measg ‘among’, am Pàrtaidh Làbarach, am Pàrtaidh Libearalach, Deamocratach, am Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta, am Pàrtaidh Tòraidheach, a-muigh, an-abaich ‘unripe’, anabaich ‘premature; unready’ anabarrach, anacothrom, an-àird(e) ‘upwards’, an àird an ear, an àiteigin, a-nall, ana-miann, an-asgaidh, an ath bhliadhna ‘the following year’, an-ath-bhliadhn’ / an-ath-bhliadhna ‘next year’, an ath oidhche ‘the following night’, an-ath-oidhch’ ‘tomorrow night’, an ath sheachdain ‘the following week’, an-ath-sheachdain ‘next week’, an-ceartuair, an co-bhoinn ri ‘in association with’, an-còmhnaidh, an-dè, an dèidh / às dèidh, an-diugh, an do rinn? / na rinn?, an-dràsta, An Eadailt, an-earar, an eisimeil ‘dependent on’, anfha(i)nn, a-nìos, a-nis(e), a-nochd, an làthair, anns a’ bhaile / sa bhaile, anns an taigh / san taigh, annta, an robh?, ... an robh ... (dependent form), an rud sa, an rud seo, an rud sin, an rud ud, an seo, anshocair unease; illness, an sin, an siud, antaidh, an triuthach, an tugte, an tuirt, an tubhairt, an uair sin, a-nuas, an-uiridh, a-null, aocoltach, aodomhainn, aoidion ‘leak’, aoidionach leaking, aoigh ‘guest’, aoigheachd ‘hospitality’, aoigheil ‘genial’, aon-deug, aosta, aotrom, ar-a-mach, a-raoir, Àrd-Easbaig, àrd-ìre, àrd-sgoil, àrd-sheanadh, àrd-ùrlar, a rèir, a-rèist, a-riamh, a-rithist / a-rìs, ars (before vowel), arsa (before consonant), a’ ruighinn / a’ ruigsinn, às ‘from, out of’, às bith, às dèidh / an dèidh, as fheàrr, às mo chadal, a-staigh, astasan, astar, a-steach, as t-earrach, as t-fhoghar, as t-samhradh, athair gen athar, a thaobh ‘regarding’, atharrais, ath-bheothachadh, ath-innse


b [+/-]

bachall, bàidh ‘tenderness’, badhbh, Badhlach, bàibheil ‘marvellous’, baidhc, baidhsagal, baidhsagalair, bàidse ‘badge’, baidse ‘batch’, bàigh ‘bays’, baile, bailiùn, baintighearna, bàirdse ‘barge’, balach, bàl ‘ball (dance)’, ball / bàlla ‘ball’, balla ‘wall’, ball-acfhainn, ball-basgaid, ball-bhòilidh, ball-coise, ball-dòbhrain, ball-maise, Ball Pàrlamaid (BP), ball-seirce, banabaidh, bana-bhàrd, bana-bhuidseach, banacharaid, banacheard, bana-ghaisgeach, banaltram, bana-phrionnsa, ban-dia, ban-diùc, ban-Eadailteach, ban-iarla, b’ ann, ban-ogha, banrigh, ban-rùnaire, ban-sheinneadair, banntrach, barail ‘opinion’, baraill(e) ‘barrel’, barantas, barraid ‘terrace’, Barraigh, barrall ‘shoelace’, barrfhad ‘top layer of peat’, basgaid ‘basket’, bàta-bathair, bàt’-aiseig, batal ‘battle’, bàta-siùil, bàta-teasairginn, bàtha(i)ch, bathar, bàthte, bàt’-iasgaich, b’ e, beag-chuid, beag-feum, beag-seagh, beag-tùr, beairt, beairteach, beairteas, beairtich v, bean-ghlùine, bean-phòsta, bean-taighe, beàrn, Beàrnaraigh, bèicearachd, beòshlaint, beothail, beul, beulaibh, beul-aithris, b’ fheàrr, bhan(a) ‘van’, bhàsa ‘vase’, bhathar / bhathas / bhatar, bheat ‘veterinary surgeon’, Bhictòria, bhidio ‘video’, bhiodh / bhitheadh, bhìoras ‘virus’, bhìosa ‘visa’, bhìoto ‘veto’, bhite / bhithist(e), bho ‘from’, bhodca ‘vodka’, bhòidse, bholt(a) ‘volt’, bholtaids ‘voltage’, bhòt, biathadh, bidh / bithidh, bilean ‘lips’, billean ‘billion’, Bìoball, bith-beò ‘a living, livelihood’, bith-bhuan / biothbhuan, bith-eòlas, biùro, biurocrasaidh, biurocratach, blaigeard, blasta ‘tasty’, bleadraig ‘blether; bother’, bleoghain v, , bobhstair, boc ‘male goat; leap’, bochd ‘poor; ill’, bodach, bodha ‘reef’, bodachail, bòdhradh, bogha ‘bow; bulge’, bogha-frois(e) ‘rainbow’, bogsa, bogsa-ciùil, bogsadh, bogsaig, bogsair, bogsa-litrichean, bòidhchead, boireann, bonaid, boireannta ‘feminine’, bòst, bòstadh, braidhm, bràiste, bràmair, brèagha, Breatannach, breug, brìoghmhor, briosgaid, bris(t), bris(t)eadh, britheamh, broidse ‘brooch’, bròn-chluich, brosgal, brù-dhearg, bruich, buaghallan, bucaid, buidheann-obrach, buidsidh ‘budgerigar’, buinteanas / buntanas, bungalo, bun-os-cionn, bun-sgoil, buntàta ‘bus’


c [+/-]

càball, cafaidh, caibideil, caidreabh, caileag, càilear, cailleach, caiptean, càirdineal, càirich v ‘mend’ vn càradh, càit a bheil?, càit(e), caithte ‘worn out, used up’, Caitligeach, caladh, calaraidh ‘calorie’, calltainn, cam, camara pl camarathan, cànan, Canèidianach, cangarù, caogad, caora pl caoraich, carabhaidh caraich v ‘move’ vn carachadh, carbad, cargu, carson, cartùn, cas-cheum, cas-chrom, catalog, cathadh ‘snowstorm’, ceàird ‘craft, trade’, ceala-deug / cola-deug, ceann-bliadhna, ceann-latha, Ceann Loch Chille Chiarain, ceann-suidhe, cearcall, ceàrd ‘travelling person’, ceàrn / ceàrnaidh, ceàrnag, ceàrnagach, ceart-cheàrnach, ceart-cheàrnag, ceathrad, ceileir ‘warble’, ceimig, ceimigeachd, ceimigear, Ceinia ‘Kenya’, ceirsle ‘ball of wool’, Cèitean (An), ceòlmhor, ceud ‘a hundred’, ceudameatair (cm for short), cha bhi, cha d’ fhuair, cha do ràinig / cha d’ ràinig, chan eil, chan fhaca, chan fhuilear, cha tàinig, cha tuirt / cha tubhairt, cha tug, chì, chìte / chithist(e), chluinnte / chluinnist(e), chuip v ‘whipped’, chun, chunnacas, chunnaic / chunna, ciad ‘first’, ciamar, cia mheud, cidhe ‘pier, quay’, cidsin, cile ‘kilo’, cileagram (kg for short), cilemeatair (km for short), cinnteach, cìobair, ciopair ‘kipper’, ciudha ‘queue’, ciutha ‘hair bun’, clach-mheallain pl clachan-meallain, clag, claigeann, clann-nighean, clàr-ama, clàr-gnothaich, clàr-innse, cleachdte, clìc, clìceach, cliobach, cliop ‘haircut’, clisgeadh, clò, cloc ‘clock’, cnàimh ‘bone’ cnàimhneach ‘skeleton’, cnàmh ‘digest’ cnap, cnap-starra(dh) pl cnapan-starra, cnatan, cneasta, cnoc, cnuimh, co-aimsireil, co-aontaich, cò às a tha thu?, co-bhanntachd, cochall, co-chomann, co-chòrdadh, co-dhalta, co-dhiù, cofaidh, Co-fhlaitheas (An), cofhurtachd, cofhurtaich, cofhurtail, coibhneas, coibhneil, coidse, còig, coilean ‘fulfil’, coileanta ‘complete, perfect’, coilleag ‘cockle; sand-dune’, coimeas ‘comparison’, coimisean, coimpiutair, coingeis, coinnlear, co-ionann, co-ionannachd, còir-bhreith, còir-bhòtaidh, Coiria ‘Korea’, coiridh ‘curry’, coitheanal, co-là-breith, co-labhairt, cola-deug / ceala-deug, colaiste, colann, colòiniach ‘colonial’, coloinidh, coltach, coltas, coluadar / co-luadar, comadaidh ‘comedy’, comaig ‘comic’, comann, comas ‘ability’, comataidh ‘committee’, combaist, comhaois ‘person of similar age’, comharra, còmhdhail, còmhla, còmhlan, còmhnard, còmhradh, còmhrag, còmhstri, còmh-thràth ‘twilight’, com-pàirt, com-pàirtich, conntraigh, consal ‘consul’, co-ogha, co-òrdanaich, copar, còrnair, corpailear, corporra, cosg, cosgais, costa ‘coast’, cothrom, crac ‘chat, crack’, cracte, crannchur, crannchur-gill ‘raffe’, craiceann, crèadh, creideamh, criogaid, crioplach, Crìosd(a), Crìosdaidh, Crìosdail, criostal ‘crystal’, cròg, crosta, crostachd, cruinne(-cè) ‘world, universe’, Cruthaidhear, (An) / Cruthadair, (An) ‘God, the Creator’, Cuaigear ‘Quaker’, cuango ‘quango’, cuaraidh, cuartaich / cuairtich, cùbaid / cùbainn, cucair ‘cooker’, cudrom / cuideam, cudromach, cuibheall / cuibhle n, cuibhil v ‘wheel’ vn cuibhleadh, cuibhle / cuibheall n, cuideachail, cuideigin, cuidhteas, cuingealachadh, cuin a thig i?, cuin(e), cuinn(l)ean, cuip n, v ‘whip’, cuir vn cur, cùis-lagha, cùis-uabhais, cuithe ‘cattle fold; pit’, cuithe-sneachda ‘snowdrift’, cùlaibh, culaidh-ghràin, culaidh-mhagaidh, culaidh-thruais, cultar, cultarach, cum ‘shape’, cùm ‘keep’, cumadh, cumail, cumanta, cunntas, cunntair ‘counter (shop); bank teller’, cuòram ‘quorum’, cuota ‘quota’, curraicealam, cuspair, cuspann / cusbann


d [+/-]

da ‘to him/it’, ‘two’, dachaigh, dad, Dadaidh, dàibheadh, dàibhear, dàibhig, daineamaig n, daineamaigeach adj, daineamait, daineamo, daingeann, daingneachadh, daingnich, daithead ‘diet’, dam ‘dam’, Dàmhair (An), danns(a), daoimean, daor, dàrna / dara, da-rìribh / dha-rìribh, dathte, deach / deachaidh, deadhan ‘dean’, deàlrach, deamhais, deamocrasaidh, deamocratach, dearbhte, deàrrsach, deasbad, deasg, dèidheil, deilignit ‘gelignite’, deireadh-seachdain, deit ‘date’, deotar ‘jotter’, deothail ‘suck’, deug, deugaire, dha ‘to him/it’, dhà ‘two’, dhachaigh, dhaibh(san), dha-rìribh / da-rìribh, dhàsan, dh’fhalbh, dhi ‘to/for her/it’, dhibh(se) ‘of/off you’ pl, dhinn(e) ‘of/off us’, dhìom(sa), dhìot(sa), dhith(se) ‘of/off her/it’, dhìse ‘to her’, dh’ith, dhiubh(san) ‘of/off them’, dh’òl, dhòmhsa, dhuibhse, dhuinn(e) ‘of/off you’, dhut(sa), dian ‘intense’, Diardaoin, diathad, dìcheall, Diciadain, dìdean, Didòmhnaich, didseatach ‘digital’, digear, Dihaoine, dilleachdan, Diluain, Dimàirt, dìneasair, dinichean ‘jeans’, dinn ‘cram, stuff’, dinnear, dìochuimhnich, diofar, dìoghail / dìol ‘avenge; repay’, dìoghaltas, diombuan, dìon ‘defend’, dioplòmasach, dioplòmasaidh, dìoro ‘giro’, diosgo, Disathairne, dithis, diùraidh ‘jury’, dleastanas, doca ‘dock, hollow’, docair, doile / doileag / doilidh ‘doll’, doilgheas, dolair, domhainn ‘deep’, domhan ‘world’, dòrainneach, doras, dosgainn, dotair (Dr for short), do ur ‘to your’, drabasta, dràibheadh, dràibhear, dram / drama ‘dram’, dràma ‘drama’, draoidh, drèana, dreasa, dreuchd, drioftair, drithleann ‘sparkle’, dr(i)ùchd, droga, drùdh ‘drop’, drudhag / drùdhag, drùdhag / drudhag, drùidh ‘soak into’, drùidhteach, dubh-fhacal ‘riddle, enigma’, dubh-ghorm, Dùbhlachd, An, ducs ‘dux’, duineil, Dùn Èideann, dùthchasach


e [+/-]

e ‘he/it’, eacarsaich, eaconamach, eaconamachd, eaconamaidh, eaconamair, Eaconamas Dachaigh, eacstasaidh ‘ecstasy (the drug)’, eadar-àm, eadar-amail, eadar-lìon, èadhar ‘air’, eadhon, èadhraig v ‘air’, eagal, eala, ealain (not *ealan), ealla (as in gabh ealla ri), ealtainn, eanraich, earball, eàrlas / àirleas, Earra-Ghàidheal, eas-aonta ‘disagreement’, easaontas ‘transgression’, easbaig, easbhaidh, easbhaidheach, èasgaidh, easgann, eatarrasan, èiginneach / èigeannach, èigh, èigheach(d), èiginn, ’eil?, eileagtronaigeach, eileamaid, eilean, eilthireach, einnsean, einnseanair, einnseanaireachd, Èireannach, èirich v ‘rise’ vn èirigh, èiridh ‘will rise’, Èirisgeigh, eisimeil, eisimeileach, eisimpleir, èist, èisteachd, Èitseal, esan, eucoir, eucorach, eud, eugmhais


f [+/-]

fa chomhair, fa chùis, facs ‘fax’, factaraidh, fàd, fa-dheòidh ‘finally’, faic, faiceall / faicill, faiceallach / faicilleach, faicte / faicist(e), faidhle n ‘file’, faidhl(ig), faigh, faighnich, faileas, faillich / fairtlich, fàillig / fàilnich, failmean ‘knee-cap’, fàinne, fàire, fàisgte, fa leth, fallain, fallas, famhair / fuamhaire, fa-near, faobhar, faochadh / faothachadh, faoileag, Faoilleach (Am), far-ainm, faram, faramach, farchluais, farsaing, fa sgaoil, fastaidh, fastaidhear, fathann, feabhas, feadhainn, feallsanachd, fear, fèar ‘just, exactly’, fearail, fear-ceàird, feareigin, fear-labhairt, fear-lagha, fear na cathrach, feàrr / fheàrr, feart ‘virtue; heed’, feasgar Dimàirt, feasgar na Sàbaid, fèath, fèileadh ‘kilt’, fèist ‘feast, banquet’, feuch ‘try’, feur ‘grass’, feurach, feusag, feusgan, fhathast, fhuair, fhuaras ‘was found’, fiacail, fiach ‘worth’, fiar ‘squint’, fideiseach ‘fidgety’, fidheall, fighte, fillte, film, fìon, fìor ‘true’, fìrean ‘righteous/worthy person’, fìreanachadh ‘justifying’, freann, freannach, fìr-eun ‘eagle’, fìrinn ‘truth’, fìrinneach ‘truthful’, fitheach, fodha ‘under him/it’, fòdhpa, foghain ‘suffice’, foghlam, fòghnan ‘thistle’, fòidhpe, foighidinn, foighidneach, foillseachadh, foirfeach, foirm ‘form’, follaiseach, fon chuthach, fosgladh ‘opening’, fraighig / praighig ‘fry’, Fraingis ‘French language’, Frangach ‘French person’, freastal, freumh, frids fridge, fuaigheil v ‘sew’ vn fuaigheal, fuaigheal n ‘sewing’, fuaim, fuamhaire / famhair, fuasgladh ‘solving, loosening’, fuathasach ‘very, terribly’, fùdar / pùdar, fuidheall ‘remainder’, fuiling v ‘suffer’ vn fulang, fulang(as) n ‘suffering’, furasta, furm ‘stool’


g [+/-]

Gàidheal, Gàidhealach, Gàidhealtachd, Gàidhlig, gailleann, gaileis ‘braces’, gaineamh, gainmheach, gàirnealaireachd, Gall, Gallta, gamhlas, gànraich, gaoisid, gaoth, gar v ‘warm oneself’ vn garadh, gàrlach ‘nyaff/irritating person’, gàrradh, gasta, gèadh, geal, geall, gearain v ‘complain’ vn gearan, gearan ‘complaint’, gearastan, geàrd, Gearran (An), gearran ‘gelding’, geàrr-chunntas, geimhleag, geoimeatraidh ‘geometry’, ge-tà ‘however’, geur, geurchuiseach, gheat ‘yacht’, Giblean (An), gidheadh, Gilleasbaig, giorna-giùirne ‘helter-skelter’, giuthas, glacte, glaine adj ‘cleaner’, glainne ‘glass’, gleus, gleusta, gloidhc, glù(i)n, gnìomhachas, gnù ‘surly’, goil ‘boil’, goilf, goilfear, Goill, graf, gràin, gràineil, gràinich, gràinne ‘a single grain’, gràmar, Gramasdal, gramataigeach, gràn ‘grain’, grànda, greann, grèata ‘grate (fireplace)’, grèim, greusaiche, gu leòr, gun fhiosta, gun do rinn / gun rinn, gun robh


h [+/-]

haidhp ‘hype’, haidridean ‘hydrogen’, hama, hangar, heileacoptar, hocaidh ‘hockey’, hòro-gheallaidh, hù-bhitheil ‘stramash’


i [+/-]

iac ‘yak’, Iapan, iarann, iar-cheumnaiche, Iar-Cheann-suidhe, iarnaig, iar-ogha, iarrtas, iathadh, idrisgeach ‘fidgety’, Ìle, imeachd, imlich, ìmpire, ìmpireachd, Inbhir Aora, Inbhir Nis, ìne ‘fingernail’, inneal-ciùil, inneal-fighe, inneal-measgachaidh, Innse Gall, inntinn, ìocshlaint, iòga ‘yoga’, iogart ‘yogurt’, ioma(dh), ioma-dhathach, iomadh duine, iomadh-fhillte, ioma-ghaoth, iomchaidh, iom-fhillte, Ìomhar, iomnaidh, iomrall, ionad-fàilte, ionad-fiosrachaidh, ionad-slàinte, ionad-spòrs(a), ionann, iongantach, iongantas, iongnadh, ionmhainn, ionnsaich, ionnsaichte, ionnsaigh, ionnsramaid, ionnsramaideach, Iorc ‘York’, iorghail, ìosal / ìseal, iosgaid, iriosal, irioslachd, isbean, Iseabail, ìsle, is mathaid, Israelach / Iosaraileach, is toigh le / is toil le, iubailidh ‘jubilee’, Iuchar (An t-), Iùgoslàibhia, Iupatar


l [+/-]

Lacasdal, lachdann, lagchuiseach, laimrig, laiste, làmh, làmh-an-uachda(i)r, làmhchair, lampa, làrach-lìn, làraidh, làrna-mhàireach, lastaig, latha / , latha-breith, latha-fèille, Latha/Là Luain, Latha/Là na Sàbaid, latheigin, lèabag / leòbag, leabaidh, leabhar-latha / leabhar-là, leabharlann, leaghte, leagte, leann, leasbach ‘lesbian’, Leas-Stiùiriche, leathann, leathase, leig mu sgaoil, lèine, leis(-san), leiteachas, leòbag / lèabag, leòman ‘moth’, leòmhann ‘lion’, leònte, leòr, l(e)òsan ‘window pane’, lethbhreac, leth-bhreith, lethchar, lethcheann, leth-cheud, lethchiallach, leth-chuairt, letheach, lethoireach ‘isolated’, leth-uair, ‘surface film’, lide(adh), lilidh, liodraig, lìomhte, liosta, lobhte, locair, Loch Baghasdail, logaidh, loidhne, loidseadh, loidsear, loidsig ‘logic’, loidsigeach ‘logical’, loiliopop, loisgte, lom, luathaireach ‘high-spirited, mischievous’, luaths, lùbach, lùbte, luchd, luchd-ciùil, luchd-ealain, luchd-obrach, luchdte, luchd-turais, Lùnastal (An), Lunnainn, lùths


m [+/-]

Mac a’ Ghobhainn, MacAilein, MacAmhlaigh, Mac an Aba, Mac an t-Saoir, Mac-a-phì, MacCoinnich / MacChoinnich, MacIlleMhaoil, mac-meanmna / mac-meanmainn, mac-samhail, mac-talla, madadh-allaidh, madainn, maicreasgop ‘microscope’, maids v ‘match’ vn maidseadh, maids(e) ‘match, game’, maighdeann, maighstir, maighstir-sgoile, màileid, mairtfheòil, maith / math ‘forgive’, maitheanas / mathanas ‘forgiveness’, maitheas / mathas ‘goodness’, manaidsear, maoil ‘forehead’, mar-aon, mar-bhith ‘fault, blame’, mar eisimpleir (me for short), margaid, màrsail ‘marching’, mar sin air adhart (msaa for short), Màrt (Am), mar-thà / mu thràth, mas e do thoil e, mas fhìor, ma-tà / ma-thà, matamataig, matamataigeach, math / maith ‘forgive’, mathanas / maitheanas ‘forgiveness’, mathas / maitheas ‘goodness’, m’ athair, math dh’fhaodte, math ’s gu bheil e, meacanaig, meacanaigeach, meadhan, meadh-bhlàth, mean / mion ‘small’, mèaran / mèanan ‘yawn’, mèaranaich / mèananaich ‘yawning’, mèarrsadh, meas, meata, meatafor, meidigeach, meileabhaid ‘velvet’, mèinneadair, mèinnir ‘mineral’, mèinnireach, mèirle, meòrachadh, meòrachail, meòrachan, meòraich, meud, meudaich, meur, meuran ‘thimble’, meur-chlàr ‘keyboard’, mial, mialaich / miathalaich, mial-chù, mias ‘basin’, miast(r)adh ‘havoc’, mì-chàilear, mìchiatach / mì-chiatach, mì-chliù, mì-chofhurtail, mì-fhallain, mi fhèin / mi fhìn, mi fhìn / mi fhèin, mìlegram (mg for short), mìleliotair (ml for short), mìlemeatair (mm for short), mill, millean, milleanair ‘millionaire’, mì-mhodh, mì-mhodhail, minig, ministear, mion / mean ‘small’, mion-chànan, mions ‘mince’, mìorbhail, mìorbhaileach, mì-phroifeiseanta, mìos ‘month’, mì-rùn, miseanaraidh, mocheirigh, modail ‘model’, modal ‘module’, mòdam, moileciuil, mo leabhar-sa, monmhar, mòr, mòrchuis, mòrchuiseach, mòr-dhail, morgaids(e), mòr-roinn ‘continent’, mòr-shluagh, mòr-thìr ‘mainland’, mosgìoto ‘mosquito’, mu choinneamh / mu choinneimh, mu chuairt, mu dheidhinn, muicfheòil, muileann, muilicheann / muinichill, muiltfheòil, muinighin, muinntir, muncaidh, mur(a) ‘unless’, murtaidh ‘sultry’, mus ‘before’, Muslamach, mu thràth / mar-thà


n [+/-]

nàbaidh, na b’ òige, nach bi, nàdar, nàdarrach, Na Hearadh, naidheachd, naidhlean, naochad, naoi / naodh, naoi air fhichead / naodh air fhichead, naoi-deug / naodh-deug, naoidheamh / naodhamh, naoinear / naodhnar, neach-ciùil, neach-ealain, neacheigin, neach-gairm, neach-labhairt, neach-sgrùdaidh, neach-teagaisg, nèamh, nèapaigin, nèapraig(ear), neas ‘weasel’, neasgaid ‘a boil’, nèibhidh, neo-ar-thaing, neochoireach, neo-eisimeileach, neo-fhoirmeil, neòghlan, neoichiontach, neoichiontachd, neo-lochdach, neoni, NicIlleDhuinn, nìghneag, nithear ‘will be done’, niùclasach, nobhail, nuair


o [+/-]

obair-dachaigh, obair-ghrèis, obair-làimhe, obair-latha, Òban (An t-), Obar Dheathain, obraichean, ochdad, ochd-deug, Ògmhios (An t-), ogsaidean ‘oxygen’, Oidhche Ardaoin, Oidhche Challainn, Oidhche Chiadain, Oidhche Dhòmhnaich, Oidhche Haoine, Oidhche Luain, Oidhche Mhàirt, Oidhche na Sàbaid, Oidhche Shamhna, Oidhche Shathairne, oidhirp, oifigear, oifigeach airm, oifigear leasachaidh, oifigeil, òigear, oilisgin, oillteil, oilthigh, òinseach, oirbh(se), òirdheirc, òirleach, oirre ‘on her’, oisean, Ollamh (An t-) (An t-Oll for short), onair, onarach, opairèisean ‘operation’, opara ‘opera’, òraidiche, orains, orainsear, òran càraid, òran luaidh, òrdaich, òrdaighean, òrdugh / òrdan, òrdugh cùirte, orra ‘on them’, os cionn, os ìosal ‘secretly’, os làimh, os-nàdarra(ch), òson ‘ozone’, ostail, Ostair (An), òstair ‘hotelier’, othaisg pl othaisgean / òisgean


p [+/-]

Pabaigh, paidh ‘pie’, paidhir, paidse ‘patch’, pàigh ‘pay’, pàipear-naidheachd, paireafain ‘parafin’, pairilis ‘paralysis, palsy’, paisgte, pàiste, paistiuraich ‘pasteurise’, pannal ‘panel’, paraimeatair ‘parameter’, paraisiut, paròil, parsail, partaidh / pàrtaidh, pasgan, pathadh, peansail, pears-eaglais, peile, peinnsean, peirceall, piàno, pinc, pìob-mhòr, pioramaid, piotsa ‘pizza’, pitheid, plana cànain, plana leasachaidh, plastaig, plèan(a), plèastair / plèastraig v ‘plaster’, plèastar n, pleidhe ‘playtime, interval’, plòidh, poball, poblach ‘public’, poblachd ‘republic’, poidhleat ‘pilot’, poidsear, poidsig, poileas, poileasaidh, poilitigs, poilitigeach, poirdse ‘porch’, pòla / pòile ‘pole’, pongail, post(a), pòsta, post-dealain (post-d for short), practaigeach, pragmatach, preusant, prìomh bhaile, Prìomh Mhinistear, prionnsapal, pròbhaist, proifeasair, proifeiseanta, proipeilear, pròiseact, proiseactair, pronn, pronnasg ‘sulphur’, Pròstanach, pròtacal, prothaid, prothaideach, prothaidich v, protractair, pùdar / fùdar n, purpaidh / purpar ‘purple’


r [+/-]

raidhc ‘rake (person)’, raighd ‘ride’, ràinig, ràith(e), raon-cluiche, rathad-mòr ‘main road’, rèabhaireachd ‘rambling(in the sense of walking)’, reasabaidh, rèidio, rèidiografaidh, rèidium, rèidius, rèisimeid, reoth ‘freeze’, reothadh, reòthta / reòthte, reubte, reudan ‘woodworm, woodlouse, etc’, riaghailt, ribh(se), ribheid, rinc-deighe, rinn(e) ‘to us’, rìoghachd, rionnach, rionnag, ris(-san), ri taobh, ro ‘before’ (not roi / roimh), roghainn, roilear, roilig, roinn dealbhachaidh, ro-innleachd, roinn ionmhais, rola / roile ‘roll’, ro-ràdh, ròsta, rothaig ‘wind up’, rùbarab ‘rhubarb’, rubha, rudeigin, r(u)idhil v, r(u)idhle n, rùilear, rùisg v ‘peel’, Rùm, ruma ‘rum’, rùm-cadail, rùm-suidhe, rùm-teagaisg, rùrach / rùileach, rùsg n ‘peel; fleece’


s [+/-]

sa, san sg ‘in the’, ’s a ‘and his/her’, sabhal pl saibhlean, sabhs ‘sauce’, saibhear ‘culvert’, saidhbhir ‘rich’, saidhbhreas ‘riches’, saidhleafòn, sail pl sail(th)ean ‘beam’, sàil ‘heel’, saill v ‘salt’ vn sailleadh, saimeant, sàirdseant, sàl ‘brine’, salchar, ’s am ‘and the/their’, samhail, Samhain (An t-), samhla, ’s an ‘and the/their’, ’s ann, saorsainneachd ‘joinery’, saorsainneil, Sasainn, Sasannach, ’s dòcha, ’s e, seabra ‘zebra’, seachain, seachdad, seachdain, seachdainean, seadh ‘aye, yes’, seagh ‘sense’, seaghail, seagsaidh ‘sexy’, seal ‘a while’, sealastair / seileastair, seall, Sealtainn, seanail channel, seanailear, seanchaidh, seanchas, seanfhacal, seans(a) / teans(a), seansailear, seantans, seaplain ‘chaplain’, searaidh ‘sherry’, searmon, searmonaich, seasgad, seatlaig, seic ‘cheque’, seiche ‘hide’, seilear, seileastair / sealastair, seirbheis, seirbheiseach, sèithear, sèithear-cuibhle, seit-phlèan, seo, seòclaid, seòmar-bìdh, seòmar-ionnlaid, seòmar-leapa, seud, seun ‘charm, spell’, seunta, seusan, ’s fheudar, Sgalpach, Sgalpaigh, Sgarp (An), Sgarpach, sgeidse ‘sketch’, sgeul, sgì v ‘ski’ vn sgitheadh, sgiamh, sgian, sgileil, sgillinn, sgiort(a), Sgitheanach, sgìths, sglèat, sgoilear, sgoinneil, sgreamh, sgreamhail, sgreataidh, sgreuch ‘scream’, sgrìob-cheangail, sgriubha, sgriubhaig, sgriubhaire, sguilearaidh, ’s i, siabann, siad ‘hero’, ’s iad, sian ‘storm’, sib’ fhèin (short for sibh fhein), similear, sinc ‘sink; zinc’, sinn-seanair, sinn-seanmhair, sìochaint, Siog ‘Sikh’, siogàr ‘cigar’, siogarait ‘cigarette’, sìon ‘anything’, Sìona ‘China’, Sìonach ‘Chinese’, sionnsar, siop ‘zip’, siopsach ‘gypsy’, sioraf ‘giraffe’, siorc ‘shark’, sìorraidh, siostam, sitheann, siud, siuga, slac ‘slack, weak’, slaic ‘blow’, slaighd, slaightear, slaightearachd, sleamhainn, sleids, sliseag, sloc ‘pit’, smachd, smaoinich vn smaoineachadh, ’s math, (’s) math dh’fhaodte, ’s maite / ’s mathaid, smeur, smiogaid, smior, smocadh, smocaig v ‘smoke’, sna pl ‘in the’, snaidhm / snaoim, snaigheadair, snaigheadh, snàithlean, snaoim / snaidhm, snàthainn, snèap, snìomhte, so-dhèanta, soidhne, soidhnig, soifostaigeach, soircas, sòisealta, soisgeul, soitheamh ‘tame’, solas ‘light’, sòlas ‘joy’, ’son (short for airson), sòn ‘zone’, sònraichte, spaidsir, Spainn(t)each, Spainn(t)is, spanair, speal, spìosrach, splais, spreadh vn spreadhadh, spreig, spreòt ‘incite’, sprochd, sprùilleach, srac vn sracadh, Sràid na h-Eaglais(e), srainnsear, srath, sreap / streap, sreapadair / streapadair, sreapadaireachd / streapadaireachd, sreothart, sreothartaich, srùbag, stàball, staidhre, stairsneach, staitistearachd ‘statistics’, staitistigeil, staoig ‘steak’, steall, steatasgop, steig v ‘stick’, steigeach, stiùidio, stiùireadair, stiùir vn stiùireadh, stiùrag, stoidhle, stòiridh, stòr, stràc, strèan, streap / sreap, streapadair / sreapadair, streapadaireachd / sreapadaireachd, strì, strìoch, structar, / sutha ‘zoo’, suaicheanta ‘noteworthy’, suaitheanta ‘awful’, sùbailte / subailte, sùbailteachd / subailteachd, subsadaidh, sùgh orainseir, suidse ‘switch’, sùigh, sùim ‘sum; regard’, suiteas ‘sweet’ pl suiteis ‘sweets’, suirghe, sùith ‘soot’, Sultain (An t-), susbaint


t [+/-]

tacsa ‘help’, taghta ‘fine’, taghte ‘chosen’, tagsaidh ‘taxi’, taidh, taidhear / taidhr, taidhl, taidhp, taigh, taigh-bìdh, taigh-cluiche, taigh-cùirte, taigh-òsta, taigh-seinnse, tàinig, tairig / tarrag ‘nail’, tàirnean / tairgean / tarragan ‘nails’, tairsgeir / treidhsgeir, taisbeanadh, taisgte, tana, tancair, taobh-duilleig(e) (td for short), Tarasaigh, tarcais, tarcaiseach, tastan, TBh, , teacsa, teampall, teanamaint, teanas, teans(a) /seansa ‘chance’, tèarainte, tèarainteachd, tèarmann, teàrn vn teàrnadh, teatha / , tè-eigin, teicneòlach, teicneòlas, teicnigeach, tèile (ie tè eile), telefòn, teip, teirm ‘term’, teis-meadhan, tè-lagha, telebhisean, telesgop, teòiridh ‘theory’, teòiridheach ‘theoretical’, teòth, teòthachd ‘temperature’, thàinig, tha mi ’n dòchas, thathar / thathas / thatar, tha toil agam, thig, thoir fa-near, thugainn / tugainn / tiugainn, thuirt, thubhairt, / teatha, till vn tilleadh, timcheall, tiogaid ‘ticket’, tiona ‘tin’, tionsail ‘tinsel’, tìoraidh ‘goodbye’, Tiristeach / Tiridheach, tìr-mòr, titheach, tiugainn / thugainn / tugainn, tobar m gen tobair f gen tobrach, Tobar Mhoire, todha ‘hoe’, tofaidh, togsaid / tocasaid, togte, toinisgeil, toirds ‘torch’, tomàto pl tomàtothan, tombaca, tò(i)n, tonsail, tost ‘silence’, tost(a) ‘toast’, tostach, trafaig, traidhfeal ‘trifle’, traidhsagal, traidiseanta, trainnse, tràlair, trasta adv ‘diagonal’, trealaich, treamhlaidh ‘bug’, trèan(a), trèan v vn trèanadh, trèan(aig) v, treidhe, treidhsgeir / tairsgeir, tribiùnal, trilleachan, trìoblaich ‘triple’, triom ‘mood’, trithead, trìtheamh (an), tro (not ‘troimh’), troigh ‘foot (measurement)’, troilidh ‘trolley’, troimh-a-chèile, troimhesan, truileis, truinnsear, trustar, tuairmse, tuarastal, tubaist, tugainn / thugainn / tiugainn, tughadh, tuilleadh, tui(r)neap, tuireadh ‘lament’, tuirt, tubhairt, turadh ‘dry weather’, turas


u [+/-]

uabhar, uabhas, uabhasach, uaimh, uaireigin, uàlras ‘walrus’, uamhraidh ‘very, terribly’, uanfheòil, ubhal, uèir-bhiorach, ugh, ùghdarras, uidheam-glanaidh, uile-gu-lèir, uilinn / uileann, uill ‘well’, uimhir, uiread, uireasbhaidh, uirle-thruis ‘chaos, stramash’, uirsgeul, Ulapul, unnta, Ùna, uncail, Urànas, ùrlar, ùrnaigh, urra, urrainn, Urramach (An t-) (An t-Urr for short), ùruisg, uspag


x [+/-]

x-ghath