[printable]

thig

thig ‘come’ is an irregular simple verb. It generally denotes a (proximal) event of motion along a trajectory, towards the speaker or centre of discourse (cf. the equivalent distal verb rach ‘go’).


forms [+/-]

The principal parts of thig are –

  • thig – future independent ‘will come’
  • thàinig – past independent ‘came’
  • tighinn – verbal noun ‘coming’


tense

  • past [+/-]
    • active
      • independent – thàinig
      • relative – a thàinig
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tàinig
    • passive
      • independent – thàinigeas
      • relative – a thàinigeas
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tàinigeas
  • future [+/-]
    • active
      • independent – thig
      • relative – a thig
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tig
    • passive
      • independent – thigear
      • relative – a thigear
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tigear
  • conditional [+/-]
    • active
      • first person singular
        • independent – thiginn
        • relative – a thiginn
        • dependent – cha/an/nach tiginn
      • first person plural
        • independent – thigeamaid
        • relative – a thigeamaid
        • dependent – cha/an/nach tigeamaid
      • second/third persons
        • independent – thigeadh
        • relative – a thigeadh
        • dependent – cha/an/nach tigeadh
    • passive
      • independent – thigte
      • relative – a thigte
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tigte


status

  • independent [+/-]
    • past
      • active – thàinig
      • passive – thàinigeas
    • future
      • active – thig
      • passive – thigear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – thiginn
        • first person plural – thigeamaid
        • second/third persons – thigeadh
      • passive – thigte
  • relative [+/-]
    • past
      • active – a thàinig
      • passive – a thàinigeas
    • future
      • active – a thig
      • passive – a thigear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – a thiginn
        • first person plural – a thigeamaid
        • second/third persons – a thigeadh
      • passive – a thigte
  • dependent [+/-]
    • past
      • active – cha/an/nach tàinig
      • passive – cha/an/nach tàinigeas
    • future
      • active – cha/an/nach tig
      • passive – cha/an/nach tigear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – cha/an/nach tiginn
        • first person plural – cha/an/nach tigeamaid
        • second/third persons – cha/an/nach tigeadh
      • passive – cha/an/nach tigte


voice

  • active [+/-]
    • past
      • independent – thàinig
      • relative – a thàinig
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tàinig
    • future
      • independent – thig
      • relative – a thig
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tig
    • conditional
      • independent
        • first person singular – thiginn
        • first person plural – thigeamaid
        • second/third persons – thigeadh
      • relative
        • first person singular – a thiginn
        • first person plural – a thigeamaid
        • second/third persons – a thigeadh
      • dependent
        • first person singular – cha/an/nach tiginn
        • first person plural – cha/an/nach tigeamaid
        • second/third persons – cha/an/nach tigeadh
  • passive [+/-]
    • past
      • independent – thàinigeas
      • relative – a thàinigeas
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tàinigeas
    • future
      • independent – thigear
      • relative – a thigear
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tigear
    • conditional
      • independent – thigte
      • relative – a thigte
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tigte


imperative

  • independent [+/-]
    • first person singular – thigeam!
    • second person singular – thig!
    • first person plural – thigeamaid!
    • second person plural – thigibh!
    • third person – thigeadh!
    • passive – thig(t)ear!
  • dependent [+/-]
    • first person singular – na tigeam!
    • second person singular – na tig!
    • first person plural – na tigeamaid!
    • second person plural – na tigibh!
    • third person – na tigeadh!
    • passive – na tig(t)ear!


notes

Notes –

  1. The dependent forms in tig- and tàinig- are pronounced as if they were spelled dig- and dàinig-.
  2. Alternative verbal nouns in traditional Gaelic are teachd and tighean.


dependents


subject [+/-]

The subject of thig is usually a noun or pronoun denoting one or more human beings moving towards the speaker (or other deictic centre) under their own volition –

  • Thàinig Raonaid. ‘Rachel came.’
  • Cha tig na balaich. ‘The boys won’t come.’
  • An tigeadh iad? ‘Would they come?’

Some examples – [+/-]

When responding to a question, the subject can be dropped –

  • An tàinig thu? ‘Did you come?’
    • Thàinig. ‘Yes, I did.’
    • Cha tàinig. ‘No, I didn’t.’
  • Cò às an tig Raonaid? ‘Where will Rachel come from?’
    • Thig às a’ bhaile. ‘She will come from (the) town.’

Some examples – [+/-]

Examples with non-human subjects – [ex +/-]


complements [+/-]

Unlike rach ‘go’, thig occurs frequently without any complement, with the trajectory of motion understood from context –

  • Thàinig Raonaid. ‘Rachel came [to(wards) or alongside the current deictic centre]. / Mary arrived.’

Some examples – [+/-]

  • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Cha tàinig iad riamh. | An tàinig Iain fhathast? Thàinig am Poileas agus rug iad air a’ mheàirleach. | Thigeadh Anna. | An tàinig Beathag fhathast? | A-nis càite a bheil Dòmhnall? Thàinig esan mar-thà. | Is ann a thàinig Iain anmoch. | Thàinig Iain gun fhiosta dhomh. | Cha tàinig ach Anna. | A bheil fios agaibh cuin a thàinig an trèan? | Thàinig e ged a bha e sgìth. | | Tha iad a’ ràdh gun tàinig Iain. | Chì sinn thu nuair a thig thu. | An tig iad? 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • An tàinig Màiri an-raoir? Thig mi a-nochd. An tig iad a dh’aithghearr? Ma thig e, an tig ise cuideachd? 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • biblical examples – [ex +/-]
    • A Nis is iad so ainmeanna chloinn Israeil, a thàinig do’n Eiphit; thàinig gach duine agus a theaghlach maille re Iacob: Reuben, Simeon, Lebhi, agus Iudah, [...] Agus na h-anman uile a thàinig a mach a leasraidh Iacoib, bu deich agus tri fichead anam iad; oir bha Ioseph ’san Eiphit a cheana. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚

Otherwise, thig usually takes one or more complements – prepositional phrases or adverbs.


concrete

Concrete uses of thig involve a material (generally animate, volitional) subject moving along a trajectory/path in three-dimensional physical space (generally towards the speaker or other deictic centre), often with a specific goal/purpose in mind.


paths [+/-]

A complement of concrete thig can denote the physical trajectory of motion itself, usually with respect to one or more reference objects.


prepositions [+/-]

There are a number of prepositions which can be used to introduce concrete path complements of thig

  • thig à ... ‘come out of ...’
  • thig bho ... ‘come from ...’
  • thig do [dha/a] ... ‘come (in)to ...’
    • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • biblical examples – [ex +/-]
      • A Nis is iad so ainmeanna chloinn Israeil, a thàinig do’n Eiphit; thàinig gach duine agus a theaghlach maille re Iacob: Reuben, Simeon, Lebhi, agus Iudah, Isachar, Sebulun, agus Beniamin, Dan, agus Naphtali, Gad, agus Aser. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚


adverbs [+/-]

There are many adverbs (and prepositional compounds) which can serve as the complement of thig, denoting a concrete trajectory –


purpose [+/-]

A complement of concrete thig can denote the purpose of the motion, the reason why the volitional subject decided to act in that way.

Some examples – [ex +/-]

cf. thig air làithean saora ‘come on holiday’


abstract [+/-]

Abstract uses of thig do not involve physical motion along a concrete spatial trajectory.

Some examples – [+/-]


modifiers [+/-]

Forms of thig can be used with a wide range of adverbial modifiers –


uses [+/-]


derivatives


tighinn [+/-]


uses


complement


a’ tighinn [+/-]

[ex +/-]