[printable]

rach

rach ‘go’ is an irregular simple verb. It generally denotes a (distal) event of motion along a trajectory, usually not towards the speaker or other deictic centre (cf. the equivalent proximal verb thig ‘come’).


forms [+/-]

The principal parts of rach are –

  • thèid – future independent ‘will go’
  • chaidh – past independent ‘went’
  • rachadh – conditional independent ‘would go’
  • dol – verbal noun ‘going’


tense

  • past [+/-]
    • active
      • independent – chaidh
      • relative – a chaidh
      • dependent – cha/an/nach deach
    • passive
      • independent – chaidheas
      • relative – a chaidheas
      • dependent – cha/an/nach deachas
  • future [+/-]
    • active
      • independent – thèid
      • relative – a thèid
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tèid
    • passive
      • independent – thèidear
      • relative – a thèidear
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tèidear
  • conditional [+/-]
    • active
      • first person singular
        • independent – rachainn / dheighinn
        • relative – a rachainn / dheighinn
        • dependent – cha/an/nach rachainn / deighinn
      • first person plural
        • independent – rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • relative – a rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • dependent – cha/an/nach rachamaid / deigheamaid
      • second/third persons
        • independent – rachadh / dheigheadh
        • relative – a rachadh / dheigheadh
        • dependent – cha/an/nach rachadh / deigheadh
    • passive
      • independent – rachte / dheighte
      • relative – a rachte / dheighte
      • dependent – cha/an/nach rachte / deighte


status

  • independent [+/-]
    • past
      • active – chaidh
      • passive – chaidheas
    • future
      • active – thèid
      • passive – thèidear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – rachainn / dheighinn
        • first person plural – rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • second/third persons – rachadh / dheigheadh
      • passive – rachte / dheighte
  • relative [+/-]
    • past
      • active – a chaidh
      • passive – a chaidheas
    • future
      • active – a thèid
      • passive – a thèidear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – a rachainn / dheighinn
        • first person plural – a rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • second/third persons – a rachadh / dheigheadh
      • passive – a rachte / dheighte
  • dependent [+/-]
    • past
      • active – cha/an/nach deach
      • passive – cha/an/nach deachas
    • future
      • active – cha/an/nach tèid
      • passive – cha/an/nach tèidear
    • conditional
      • active
        • first person singular – cha/an/nach rachainn / deighinn
        • first person plural – cha/an/nach rachamaid / deigheamaid
        • second/third persons – cha/an/nach rachadh / deigheadh
      • passive – cha/an/nach rachte / deighte


voice

  • active [+/-]
    • past
      • independent – chaidh
      • relative – a chaidh
      • dependent – cha/an/nach deach
    • future
      • independent – thèid
      • relative – a thèid
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tèid
    • conditional
      • independent
        • first person singular – rachainn / dheighinn
        • first person plural – rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • second/third persons – rachadh / dheigheadh
      • relative
        • first person singular – a rachainn / dheighinn
        • first person plural – a rachamaid / dheigheamaid
        • second/third persons – a rachadh / dheigheadh
      • dependent
        • first person singular – cha/an/nach rachainn / deighinn
        • first person plural – cha/an/nach rachamaid / deigheamaid
        • second/third persons – cha/an/nach rachadh / deigheadh
  • passive [+/-]
    • past
      • independent – chaidheas
      • relative – a chaidheas
      • dependent – cha/an/nach deachas
    • future
      • independent – thèidear
      • relative – a thèidear
      • dependent – cha/an/nach tèidear
    • conditional
      • independent – rachte / dheighte
      • relative – a rachte / dheighte
      • dependent – cha/an/nach rachte / deighte


imperative

  • independent [+/-]
    • first person singular – racham!
    • second person singular – rach!
    • first person plural – rachamaid!
    • second person plural – rachaibh!
    • third person – rachadh!
    • passive – rach(t)ar!
  • dependent [+/-]
    • first person singular – na racham!
    • second person singular – na rach!
    • first person plural – na rachamaid!
    • second person plural – na rachaibh!
    • third person – na rachadh!
    • passive – na rach(t)ar!


notes

  1. The conditional stem varies according to dialect – deigh- / deidh-, rach-, reigh-, reagh-.
  2. The future dependent forms in tèid- are pronounced as if they were spelled dèid-.
  3. There is a dialectal alternative to past dependent deach, i.e. deachaidh.


dependents


subject [+/-]

The subject of rach is usually a noun or pronoun denoting one or more human beings moving somewhere under their own volition –

  • Chaidh Raonaid dhan bhaile. ‘Rachel went into town.’
  • Cha tèid na balaich dhachaigh. ‘The boys won’t go home.’
  • An deigheadh iad a-mach gu tric? ‘Would they go out a lot?’

Some examples – [+/-]

  • proper nouns –
    • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
      • Chaidh Iain a-mach. Cha deach Uilleam a-mach. | Cha tèid Màiri air lathaichean saora ged a bhios an t-airgead aice. | Thèid Anna a Ghlaschu a h-uile Dimàirt. | Is ann an-dè a chaidh Iain a Ghlaschu. | Chaidh Anna a dh’fhuireach còmhla ri Peigi. | Chaidh Iain gan iarraidh. | Chaidh Calum ga coimhead. | An abradh tu gun rachadh Iain dhan an dealbh-chluich? 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • common nouns –
  • pronouns –
    • first person –
      • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • Chaidh mi suas. | Chaidh mi a Pheairt a chionn is gun robh mo charaid a’ fuireach ann. | Thèid sinn a Ghlaschu. Dè nì sinn ma thèid sinn air chall? | am baile tron an deach sinn | Càite an tèid mi airson nan tiocaidean? 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
        • Thèid mi air ais don talla. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • second person –
    • third person –
      • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • Chaidh iad a cheannach leabhraichean. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
        • Nach tèid iad don chèilidh? | Chaidh iad don àrd-sgoil anns an ath bhaile. An deach(aidh) iad don eaglais? Nach deach(aidh) iad dhachaigh? Nach rachadh iad air bòrd? Chaidh i a dhannsa còmhla ris. Chaidh e a dhùnadh an dorais. Chaidh i a dh’fhosgladh na h-uinneig. | Chaidh e air ais. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
      • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • [...] Tha Iain a’ ruith sìos an rathad leis an litir ’na làimh. Théid e a steach do oifig a’ phuist, ceannaichidh e stamp is cuiridh e sud air an litir. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
        • Bha an latha brèagha blàth is thug an athair leis Iain agus Anna anns a’ chàr. Chaidh iad sìos taobh an locha is stad iad aig àite bòidheach gorm. Chuir iad an càr a stigh gu taobh an rathaid is thug iad brat a mach as a’ chàr air son suidhe air. Tha bascaid làn de bhiadh aca is tha iad a’ dol a ghabhail an tea air a’ chnocan ghorm. Is toigh leis a’ chloinn biadh a ghabhail a muigh ri latha brèagha. Thèid iad dhachaidh feasgar an uair a tha a’ ghrian a’ dol fodha. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • first person conditionals –
  • relativised subjects –

When responding to a question, the subject is normally dropped –

  • An deach thu a Lunnainn? ‘Did you go to London?’
    • Chaidh. ‘Yes, I did.’
    • Cha deach. ‘No, I didn’t.’
  • Càite an tèid Raonaid? ‘Where will Rachel go?’
    • Thèid don bhaile. ‘She will go into town.’

Some examples – [+/-]

  • yes/no questions –
    • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
      • An deach sibh tarsainn air an abhainn no seachad air Càrn Sheumais? Chaidh, le chèile, agus timcheall air an t-Sìdhean agus ri taobh na mara air an rathad dhachaigh. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
      • Thèid mi air ais don talla. An tèid thu còmhla rium? Cha tèid. | Nach tèid iad don chèilidh? Thèid. | An deach(aidh) iad don eaglais? Cha deach(aidh). | Nach deach(aidh) iad dhachaigh? Chaidh. | An rachadh tu air ais a-rithist? Cha rachadh. | Nach rachadh iad air bòrd? Rachadh. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
      • Tha mo mhàthair a’ sgrìobhadh litreach gu m’athair a tha air falbh. Thubhairt mo mhàthair, “An téid thu do bhocsa nan litrichean leis an litir seo, Iain?” “Théid,” ars Iain, “falbhaidh mi an dràsda”. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • open questions –


impersonal uses [+/-]

rach can be used impersonally, without an explicit or even implicit subject, in a number of constructions.


passive [+/-]

rach can be used impersonally, with a single non-finite verbal argument, as a modern alternative to using a passive form of a verb –

  • Dh’fhosgail i an uinneag. ‘She opened the window.’
    • Chaidh an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. ‘The window was opened.’ (cf. Dh’fhosgladh an uinneag.)
    • Chaidh a fosgladh. ‘It [fem.] was opened.’ (cf. Dh’fhosgladh i.)
  • Marbhaidh i am fear. ‘She will kill the man.’
    • Thèid am fear a mharbhadh. ‘The man will be killed.’ (cf. Marbhar am fear.)
    • Thèid a mharbhadh. ‘He will be killed.’ (cf. Marbhar e.)

Some examples – [+/-]

  • intransitive –
  • transitive with inversion –
    • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
      • Chaidh an doras a dhùnadh. | Chaidh Iain a bhualadh. | Cha deach an telebhisean a ghoid. | An deach am biadh a ithe? | Thèid an càr a reic. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
      • Nuair a sheallar air na chaidh a sgrìobhadh ann an Gàidhlig, shaoileadh duine gun deach òigridh na Gàidhealtachd a oideachadh nan cànan fhèin ann an sgoiltean na Stàite bho shean. [...] Ann an 1709 chaidh Comann a stèidheachadh ann an Dùn Èideann, le barrantas rìoghail, airson sgoiltean a chur air bhonn gus leughadh is sgrìobhadh a ionnsachadh do mhuinntir na Gàidhlig an Alba agus gu sònraichte airson am Bìoball agus leabhraichean cràbhach a chur an eòlas nan Gàidheal. [...] Ann an 1946 chaidh Gàidhlig a chur air a’ chlàr-oideachaidh ann am beagan sgoiltean anns na bailtean mòra, Glaschu gu h-àraid, airson a’ chiad uair. [...] Chaidh a’ chiad sgoil Ghàidhlig neo-eisimeileach [...] a stèidheachadh ann an Glaschu anns a’ bhliadhna 2006. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
      • Chaidh an ròpa a ghearradh. Thèid an doras fhosgladh aig sia uairean. Thuirt e gun deach an càr aige a ghoid. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • examples from Gairm – [ex +/-]
      • An déidh crìoch a’ Chogaidh chaidh deachdaireachdan co-mhaoineach a stéidheachadh le cul-taic an armailt ruiseanaich ann an dùthchannan na h-Eòrpa an Ear. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • other examples from modern usage – [ex +/-]
      • ’S e litir a bh’ ann gun ainm ’s gun seòladh, agus an àite làmh-sgrìobhaidh bha facail a chaidh a ghearradh à pàipear-naidheachd. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • transitive with pronoun –
  • examples with an explicit agent introduced by le ‘with’


notes [+/-]

Note that the particle a used in the inverting passives with a non-prononimal direct object is not a possessive determiner meaning ‘his, her, its’. Examples like the following with feminine or plural nouns are hypercorrections, influenced by other passive constructions –

  • *Chaidh na fir am marbhadh. ‘The men were killed’ – Chaidh na fir a mharbhadh.
  • *a’ chailleach a thèid a marbhadh ‘the old woman who will be killed’ – a’ chailleach a thèid a mharbhadh

See also the original LeaCaG guidance here.


modal uses

rach can also be used impersonally in a couple of quasi-modal constructions.


rach aig ... air ... [+/-]

The impersonal construction rach aig [duine] air [rud a dhèanamh] can be used to express the notion of success – ‘succeed in doing something, manage to do something’

  • Chaidh aig Raonaid air an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. ‘Rachel managed to open the window.’
  • Cha tèid aice air seinn. ‘She won’t manage to sing.’

Some examples – [+/-]


rach le ... [+/-]

Another way of expressing the notion of success is with the impersonal construction rach le [duine] ‘someone succeeds’

  • Chaidh le Raonaid. ‘Rachel succeeded.’
  • Cha tèid leat. ‘You won’t succeed.’

Some examples –

  • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Chun na h-ìre sin chaidh leis. | Chaidh leatha. | Ma thèid leinn ... 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • Aig toiseach tòiseachaidh b’ e rùn a’ Chomainn foghlam Beurla a thoirt don t-sluagh Ghàidhealach; bha Gàidhlig is Laideann le chèile, uime sin, air an toirmeasg anns na sgoiltean. Ach cha deach leotha. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚

A more emphatic variant is rach gu math le [duine] ‘flourish, do well’

This construction is used in the following common subjunctive imprecations, all of which mean something like ‘Good luck!’

  • Gun tèid (gu math) leat!
  • Gur math a thèid leat!

Some examples –


rach gu math do ... [+/-]

Yet another way of expressing the notion of success is with the impersonal construction rach gu math do [dhuine]

  • Chaidh gu math do Raonaid. ‘It went well for Rachel.’
  • An tèid gu math dhut? ‘Will it go well for you?’

Some examples –

This construction can also be used non-impersonally, with an explicit subject –


complements [+/-]

rach usually takes one or more complements – prepositional phrases or adverbs.


concrete

Concrete uses of rach involve a material (generally animate, volitional) subject moving along a trajectory/path in three-dimensional physical space, often with a specific goal/purpose in mind.


paths [+/-]

A complement of concrete rach can denote the physical trajectory of motion itself, usually with respect to one or more reference objects –

  • Chaidh Raonaid bho Lunnainn gu Dùn Èideann. ‘Rachel went from London to Edinburgh.’
  • Dheigheamaid a-mach a h-uile feasgar. ‘We would go out every evening.’

A path complement can be queried using càite ? ‘(to) where?, whither?’

  • Càite an deach sibh? ‘Where did you go?’


prepositions [+/-]

There are a number of prepositions which can be used to introduce concrete path complements of rach

  • rach do ... [dha/a] ‘go (in)to something’
    • proper nouns/names –
      • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • Tha Anna a’ dol a-null a Ghlaschu. | Tha mi a’ dol a-null thairis a Pharas. | Chaidh mi a Pheairt a chionn is gun robh mo charaid a’ fuireach ann. | Thèid sinn a Ghlaschu. | Thèid Anna a Ghlaschu a h-uile Dimàirt. | an tidsear a chaidh a mhac a Pheairt | Is ann an-dè a chaidh Iain a Ghlaschu. | Is àbhaist dhomh a bhith a’ dol a dh’Èirinn as t-samhradh. | An àbhaist dha a bhith a’ dol a dh’Uibhist? | Rachainn a Ghlaschu nan tigeadh Anna còmhla rium. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • common nouns –
      • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • Rachamaid dhan an taigh-thasgaidh a h-uile mìos. | Nuair a dh’fhàg mi an sgoil, chaidh mi dhan an oilthigh an Dùn Èideann. | A chionn is gum feumadh a h-uile leanabh a-nis dol dhan sgoil, agus leis gur h-e Beurla an aon chainnt ionnsachaidh a bha innte, thug an t-Achd buille mhairbhteach dhan chànan. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
        • Dh’iarr i orm a dhol don bhuth. Thèid mi air ais don talla. | Chaidh iad don àrd-sgoil anns an ath bhaile. An deach(aidh) iad don eaglais? | Chaidh e a-steach don togalach às an robh an t-seinn a’ tighinn. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
      • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
        • Tha mo mhàthair a’ sgrìobhadh litreach gu m’athair a tha air falbh. Thubhairt mo mhàthair, “An téid thu do bhocsa nan litrichean leis an litir seo, Iain?” “Théid,” ars Iain, “falbhaidh mi an dràsda”. “Fuirich gus an dùin mi i is gus an cuir mi seòladh oirre. Ceannaich fhéin stamp agus cuir oirre i.” Tha Iain a’ ruith sìos an rathad leis an litir ’na làimh. Théid e a steach do oifig a’ phuist, ceannaichidh e stamp is cuiridh e sud air an litir. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • rach gu ... ‘go to something/someone’
  • rach tro ... ‘go through something/someone’


adverbs [+/-]

There are many adverbs (and prepositional compounds) which can serve as the complement of rach, denoting a concrete trajectory –

  • rach a-mach ‘go out(side)’ (cf. *rach a-muigh)
  • rach a-null ‘go (over there)’ (cf. *rach a-nall)
  • rach a-steach ‘go in(side), enter’
  • rach air adhart ‘advance, go forwards’
  • rach air ais ‘go back(wards), recede, regress, reverse’
  • rach air bòrd ‘go aboard’
  • rach air thoiseach ‘advance, go forwards’
  • rach dhachaigh ‘go home(wards)’
  • rach sìos ‘go down(wards), charge (in battle)’ (cf. *rach a-nuas, *rach shìos)
  • rach suas ‘go up(wards)’ (cf. *rach a-nìos, *rach shuas)
  • rach seachad ‘go past’
  • rach tarsainn ‘go across/over’
  • rach timcheall ‘go (a)round’
  • rach mun cuairt ‘revolve’
  • rach fon uisge ‘dive, submerge, go underwater’
  • rach ri taobh ... ‘go along(side) ...’, rach taobh ... ‘go via ...’
  • rach far an ... ‘go (to the place) where ...’


purpose [+/-]

A complement of concrete rach can denote the purpose of the motion, the reason why the volitional subject decided to act in that way. This is usually introduced by the preposition do [a] ‘to’ governing a verbal noun –

  • Chaidh Raonaid (dhan bhùth) a dh’fhaighinn isbeanan. ‘Rachel went (to the shop) to get sausages.’
  • Dheigheamaid gam/dham faighinn a h-uile madainn. ‘We would go to get them every morning.’

A purpose complement can be queried using carson ? ‘why?’

  • Carson a chaidh sibh ann? ‘Why did you go?’

Some examples – [+/-]

Some idioms –

  • rach a/air chèilidh air ‘visit, call in on’


other

When the complement of one of the trajectory prepositions do or gu denotes a social event, the intention is understood as one of attendance –

  • Chaidh Raonaid gu banais Sheumais. ‘Rachel went to James’ wedding.’
  • Dheighinn gu adhlacadh gach seachdain. ‘I would go to a funeral every week.’
An alternative interpretation is that these are just path complements meaning ‘to the place where the wedding/funeral happened’.

Some examples – [+/-]

Note also examples with air ‘on’

  • rach air lorg ... ‘go looking for, track, trail’
  • rach air làithean saora ‘go on holiday/vacation’


other [+/-]


rach ann [+/-]

As seen with the subject above, the complement of concrete rach can only be dropped when it is implied in the response to a question.

In the absence of any other explicit complement or modifier, the prepositional pronoun ann is used as a default trajectory complement –

  • Chaidh Raonaid ann. ‘Rachel went.’

Examples –

  • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Cò a bhios a’ seinn aig a’ chèilidh? Chan eil sìon a dh’fhios agamsa ach tha seinneadairean is pìobairean is fìdhleirean às an àite seo fhèin a’ dol ann. | Tha mise a’ dol ann ma tha Anna a’ tighinn. | Rachainn ann nan tigeadh tusa còmhla rium. | Thathar a’ dol ann a h-uile bliadhna. Dh’fheumte a dhol ann. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚


idioms

Some quasi-idiomatic usages that seem to involve concrete senses of rach are –


abstract

Abstract uses of rach do not involve physical motion along a concrete spatial trajectory.


change of state [+/-]

A complement of abstract rach can denote a new state which the subject transitions into.


rach ann an ... [+/-]

The new state can be represented by a deadjectival abstract noun, introduced by the preposition an ‘in’


rach na ... [+/-]

A special implementation of this is the pseudo-reflexive rach na ... ‘become, turn into’

Some idioms –


rach à ... [+/-]

The new state can be introduced by the preposition à ‘out of’


rach gu ... [+/-]

The new state can be introduced by the preposition gu ‘to’


rach do [a] ... [+/-]

The new state can be introduced by the preposition do ‘(in)to’

  • rach a dhìth ‘perish, die out, go to ruin’
  • rach a dholaidh ‘go to waste’
Note that the reduced form a of the preposition do is used in these expressions.


idioms [+/-]

Other, idiomatic, abstract uses of rach do not seem to involve an obvious change of state –


modifiers [+/-]

Forms of rach can be used with a wide range of adverbial modifiers –

  • temporal –
    • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
      • Bha an latha brèagha blàth is thug an athair leis Iain agus Anna anns a’ chàr. Chaidh iad sìos taobh an locha is stad iad aig àite bòidheach gorm. Chuir iad an càr a stigh gu taobh an rathaid is thug iad brat a mach as a’ chàr air son suidhe air. Tha bascaid làn de bhiadh aca is tha iad a’ dol a ghabhail an tea air a’ chnocan ghorm. Is toigh leis a’ chloinn biadh a ghabhail a muigh ri latha brèagha. Thèid iad dhachaidh feasgar an uair a tha a’ ghrian a’ dol fodha. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • accompanying –
  • concessive/contrastive –
  • causal/purposive –
  • conditional –


uses


complement [+/-]


... a chaidh/thèid/rachadh

Relative forms of rach can be used as the complement of the positive relative particle a.


... seo a chaidh

Used with expressions of time to denote ‘last ..., this past ...’

Some examples involving days of the week –


derivatives [+/-]


dol [+/-]

dol ‘going’ is a masculine common noun.


uses


complement


a’ dol [+/-]

When used as the complement of the progressive particle ag, as in a’ dol ‘(in the process of) going’ has progressive meaning, and usually occurs as the predicate of the verb bi.

This progressive construction is compatible with most of the senses of non-progressive rach discussed previously.


concrete paths [+/-]

  • a’ dol bho Lunnainn gu Dùn Èideann ‘going from London to Edinburgh’
  • a’ dol ann ‘going (there)’
  • a’ dol fodha ‘going down, sinking’

Some examples involving motion in progress –

  • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Chan eil iad a’ dol a-mach. | Tha Anna a’ dol suas an staidhre. | Tha Anna a’ dol a-null a Ghlaschu. Tha Màiri a’ dol a-mach. | Càit a bheil thu a’ dol? Tha mi a’ dol a-null thairis a Pharas. | Agus theich prìosanaich a bha a’ dol gu ruige cùirt. | Càite am bi sinn a’ dol a-nochd? Bidh chun a’ chèilidh. Cò a bhios a’ seinn aig a’ chèilidh? Chan eil sìon a dh’fhios agamsa ach tha seinneadairean is pìobairean is fìdhleirean às an àite seo fhèin a’ dol ann. | nuair as ann a’ dol dhachaigh a bhios tu | Am faigh mi tiocaid a bheir à seo gu ruige na h-eileanan An-iar mi? Gheibh, agus bidh sin còig notaichean air fhichead, a’ dol taobh an Òbain. | Tha mise a’ dol ann ma tha Anna a’ tighinn. | Is àbhaist dhomh a bhith a’ dol a dh’Èirinn as t-samhradh. An àbhaist dha a bhith a’ dol a dh’Uibhist? Nach àbhaist dhi a bhith a’ dol a-mach feasgar? | Thathar a’ dol ann a h-uile bliadhna. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
    • Tha mi a’ dol dhachaigh. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]


concrete purpose [+/-]

  • a’ dol a dh’fhaighinn isbeanan ‘going to get sausages’
  • a’ dol gan/dhan ceannach ‘going to buy them’
  • a’ dol air làithean saora ‘going on holiday’


prospective

However, when used with a purpose complement, bi a’ dol can have a purely prospective (non-motional) interpretation –

  • Tha Raonaid a’ dol a bhith sgìth. ‘Rachel is going to be tired.’
  • Tha Ailig a’ dol a dhol a dh’Ealaghol. ‘Alec is going to go to Elgol.’

Some examples – [+/-]

  • pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Tha Ailean a’ dol a dh’innse dhuinn. | Bha e a’ dol a thighinn. Nach eil thu a’ dol a dh’èisteachd? | Tha Peigi a’ dol a leughadh a’ phàipeir. | Tha mi a’ dol a bhith an Dùn Èideann. Tha Dòmhnall a’ dol a bhith ag obair. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚
  • older pedagogical examples – [ex +/-]
    • Bha an latha brèagha blàth is thug an athair leis Iain agus Anna anns a’ chàr. Chaidh iad sìos taobh an locha is stad iad aig àite bòidheach gorm. Chuir iad an càr a stigh gu taobh an rathaid is thug iad brat a mach as a’ chàr air son suidhe air. Tha bascaid làn de bhiadh aca is tha iad a’ dol a ghabhail an tea air a’ chnocan ghorm. [...] 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚

In other cases the interpretation is ambiguous between progressive/prospective and purely prospective – [+/-]


change of state [+/-]

  • a’ dol am miosad ‘getting worse’
  • a’ dol na mhinistear ‘becoming a minister’
  • a’ dol às mo chiall ‘going out of my mind’


impersonal [+/-]

The rach aig ... air ... ‘manage to ...’ construction can be used in the progressive –

  • Bha a’ dol aig Raonaid air an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. ‘Rachel was managing to open the window.’

Some examples – [+/-]


other [+/-]

Some figurative and difficult to categorise examples – [+/-]

Some examples with adverbial modifiers – [+/-]

  • pedagogical examples –[ex +/-]
    • Is àbhaist dhomh a bhith a’ dol a dh’Èirinn as t-samhradh. Nach àbhaist dhi a bhith a’ dol a-mach feasgar? | Thathar a’ dol ann a h-uile bliadhna. | Tha mise a’ dol ann ma tha Anna a’ tighinn. 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 📚

cùm a’ dol ‘keep going’[ex +/-]

Note also the following ‘complement-less’ use of abstract bi a’ dol

  • Dè [a] tha a’ dol? ‘What’s going on? What’s up?’

Examples – [+/-]


a dhol [+/-]

The form used in non-finite clauses is usually a dhol, rather than just dol.

Some examples – [+/-]


air a dhol [+/-]

air a dhol ‘have gone’ is a retrospective compound, with the deverbal noun appearing as the complement of the retrospective preposition air. It usually occurs as the predicate of the verb bi.

Some examples – [+/-]