The English word if has two main uses:

  1. introducing a conditional-hypothetical subordinate clause
  2. introducing an embedded question.

Here are some examples of if being used to introduce a conditional-hypothetical clause:

Note that the word if can be (somewhat clumsily) rephrased using ‘assuming that’ in these examples:

Here are some examples of the second use of the word if, introducing an embedded question:

The word if can be easily replaced by ‘whether’ in these examples:

Or the whole embedded question could be turned into reported speech:

When if is used in a conditional-hypothetical sense, it corresponds to one of the following Gaelic subordinating conjunctions:

For example – [ex +/-]

When if is used to introduce an embedded question, it corresponds to embedded uses of the Gaelic interrogative verb particles:

For example: [ex +/-]

Note that using ma or nan to introduce an embedded question is not Gaelic: